Video | WJAX-TV A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between. For years, Juliet Nisbet has enjoyed the fruit from the orange tree in her conservatory. So when she noticed yellow fruit hanging alongside the oranges, she assumed. Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the tactical use Rainbow Herbicides. It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its. A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between. For years, Juliet Nisbet has enjoyed the fruit from the orange tree in her conservatory. So when she noticed yellow fruit hanging alongside the oranges, she assumed.
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The most common species are oak and ash, though in the past elm would also have been common. Around 20 million elm trees, most of them hedgerow trees, were felled or died through Dutch elm disease in the late s. Many other species are used, notably including beech and various nut and fruit trees.
The age structure of British hedgerow trees is old because the number of new trees is not sufficient to replace the number of trees that are lost through age or disease. New trees can be established by planting but it is generally more successful to leave standard trees behind when laying hedges. It is suggested that hedgerow trees cause gaps in hedges but it has been found that cutting some lower branches off lets sufficient light through to the hedge below to allow it to grow.
Hedges are recognised as part of a cultural heritage and historical record and for their great value to wildlife and the landscape. Increasingly, they are valued too for the major role they have to play in preventing soil loss and reducing pollution, and for their potential to regulate water supply and to reduce flooding.
In addition to maintaining the health of the environment, hedgerows also play a huge role in providing shelter for smaller animals like birds and insects. Recent study by Emma Coulthard mentioned the possibility that hedgerows may act as guides for moths, like A. As moths are nocturnal, it is highly unlikely that they use visual aids as guides, but rather are following sensory or olfactory markers on the hedgerows. Historically, hedges were used as a source of firewood, and for providing shelter from wind, rain and sun for crops, farm animals and people.
In England and Wales agricultural hedgerow removal is controlled by the Hedgerows Regulations , administered by the local planning authority. Hedges that have existed for hundreds of years are colonised by additional species. This may be useful to determine the age of the hedge. Max Hooper published his original formula in the book Hedges in This method is only a rule of thumb, and can be off by a couple of centuries ; it should always be backed up by documentary evidence, if possible, and take into account other factors.
Caveats include the fact that planted hedgerows, hedgerows with elm , and hedgerows in the north of England tend not to follow the rule as closely. The formula also does not work on hedges more than a thousand years old.
Hedgerow removal is part of the transition of arable land from low-intensity to high-intensity farming. The removal of hedgerows gives larger fields making the sowing and harvesting of crops easier, faster and cheaper, and giving a larger area to grow the crops, increasing yield and profits. They also serve as a habitat for birds and other animals. As the land within a few metres of hedges is difficult to plough, sow, or spray with herbicides , the land around hedges also typically includes high plant biodiversity.
Hedges also serve to stabilise the soil and on slopes help prevent soil creep and leaching of minerals and plant nutrients. Removal thus weakens the soil and leads to erosion. In the United Kingdom hedgerow removal has been occurring since World War I as technology made intensive farming possible, and the increasing population demanded more food from the land.
The trend has slowed down somewhat since the s when cheap food imports reduced the demand on British farmland, and as the European Union Common Agricultural Policy made environmental projects financially viable. Under reforms to national and EU agricultural policies the environmental impact of farming features more highly and in many places hedgerow conservation and replanting is taking place.
If hedges are not maintained and trimmed regularly, gaps tend to form at the base over many years. In essence, hedgelaying consists of cutting most of the way through the stem of each plant near the base, bending it over and interweaving or pleaching it between wooden stakes. This also encourages new growth from the base of each plant. Originally, the main purpose of hedgelaying was to ensure the hedge remained stock-proof.
Some side branches were also removed and used as firewood. The maintenance and laying of hedges to form an impenetrable barrier for farm animals is a skilled art. In Britain there are many local hedgelaying traditions, each with a distinct style. Hedges are still being laid today  not only for aesthetic and functional purposes but also for their ecological role in helping wildlife and protecting against soil erosion. An alternative to hedge laying is trimming using a tractor-mounted flail cutter or circular saw, or a hedge trimmer .
The height of the cutting can be increased a little every year. Trimming a hedge helps to promote bushy growth. If a flail cutter is used, then the flail must be kept sharp to ensure that the cutting is effective on the hedge. The disadvantage of this is that the hedge species takes a number of years before it will flower again and subsequently bear fruit for wildlife and people. Additionally, hedge trimming causes habitat destruction to species like the small eggar moth which spend nearly their entire life cycle in blackthorn and hawthorn hedgerow.
It is now nationally scarce in Britain. This is to protect nesting birds, which are protected by law. The techniques of coppicing and hard pollarding can be used to rejuvenate a hedge where hedge-laying is not appropriate. The term instant hedge has become known since early this century for hedging plants that are planted collectively in such a way as to form a mature hedge from the moment they are planted together, with a height of at least 1. They are usually created from hedging elements or individual plants which means very few are actually hedges from the start, as the plants need time to grow and entwine to form a real hedge.
An example of an instant hedge can be seen at the Elveden Hall Estate in East Anglia,  where fields of hedges can be seen growing in cultivated rows, since The development of this type of mature hedge has led to such products being specified by landscape architects, garden designers, property developers, insurance companies, sports clubs, schools and local councils, as well as many private home owners.
Demand has also increased from planning authorities in specifying to developers that mature hedges are planted rather than just whips a slender, unbranched shoot or plant. During its circa 8-year production time, all stock should be irrigated, clipped and treated with controlled-release nutrients to optimise health.
A quickset hedge is a type of hedge created by planting live hazel or whitethorn common hawthorn cuttings directly into the earth. Once planted, these cuttings root and form new plants, creating a dense barrier.
The technique is ancient, and the term quickset hedge is first recorded in An alternative meaning of quickset hedging is any hedge formed of living plants or of living plants combined with a fence. The technique of quicksetting can also be used for many other shrubs and trees.
A Devon hedge is an earth bank topped with shrubs. The bank may be faced with turf or stone. When stone-faced, the stones are generally placed on edge, often laid flat around gateways.
Traditional farming throughout the county has meant that fewer Devon hedges have been removed than elsewhere. Devon hedges are particularly important for wildlife habitat. Hedge laying in Devon is usually referred to as steeping and involves cutting and laying steepers the stems along the top of the bank and securing them with crooks forked sticks.
A Cornish hedge is an earth bank with stones. The neat rows of square stones at the top are called "edgers". The top of the hedge is planted with grass turf. Sometimes hedging plants or trees are planted on the hedge to increase its windbreaking height. A rich flora develops over the lifespan of a Cornish hedge. The Cornish hedge contributes to the distinctive field-pattern of the Cornish landscape and its semi-natural wildlife habitat. Hedges suffer from the effects of tree roots, burrowing rabbits, rain, wind, farm animals and people.
How often repairs are needed depends on how well the hedge was built, its stone, and what has happened to it since it was last repaired. Typically a hedge needs a cycle of repair every years or so, or less often if it is fenced. Building new hedges, and repairing existing hedges, is a skilled craft, and there are professional hedgers in Cornwall. Hedges, both clipped and unclipped, are often used as ornament in the layout of gardens. Sorry we could not verify that email address. Watch CBS47 at 5: Tension inside city council chambers tonight over the possible sale of JEA.
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