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Now I look more credible to my subscribers. Nucleosynthesis refers to the formation of massive atoms from less massive ones. They would be seen as supergiants. They would have lots of heavy elements, since they have been around for a long time and have undergone a lot of nucleosynthesis in their cores.
Young stars typically have much higher massive-element abundances than older stars.
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Classical Cepheids are supergiant, massive stars, whereas RR Lyrae stars are horizontal branch stars with masses more like that of our Sun. Cepheids are also much more luminous and have longer periods 1 to days than RR Lyrae stars, which have periods of less than one day. They have very strong winds because their luminosities proportional to the number of photons liberated by the stars per unit time are so high that the radiation pressure i.
The orbital radius of Jupiter around the Sun is about 5. Thus, if dropped at the center of the solar system, a supergiant star of this size could fill the whole orbit of Jupiter. As we learnt previously, stellar luminosity is given by two measures: Its fate is to go supernova in the near astronomical future. Or maybe it has already exploded and the information is on its way to us. For the same apparent magnitude i.
Therefore utilizing the period-relation linear relationship for Type I Cepheids would lead to a severe overestimation of the luminosity, with further implications into measuring a much larger distance to the star. For example, overestimating the luminosity by a factor of would mean a derived distance 10 times larger. Note the logarithmic y -axis scale. Therefore, its luminosity is obtained considering that the Cepheid is There is a mass deficit of Note that a fraction of this energy could be in fact become kinetic energy of the 13 N.
The binding energy of a nucleus is the energy required to tear it apart and separate the constituents nucleons, i. This becomes possible in the overcompressed stellar core. This process uses thermal energy and thus speeds the collapse. Explain how the implosion of a massive star leads to a Type II supernova explosion.
Fusion of light elements into more massive ones releases energy provided that it leads to the production of nuclei with increased binding energy per nucleon. This is the case when hydrogen is converted into helium, helium into carbon, etc.
Iron, however, is at the peak of the binding energy curve shown in the figure below. Therefore, energy can be released only in the synthesis of elements up to iron. Using iron itself to form heavier elements absorbs rather than liberates energy, because the nuclear reactions lead to nuclei less tightly bound than iron.
As a result, the star cannot generate energy to hold itself up against its self-gravity and will experience a catastrophic core-collapse followed by an explosive blast of the outer layers. The overwhelming energy of a Type II supernova is carried away mostly by neutrinos. Neutrinos remove about times more energy than the fast moving ejected outer stellar layers have in the form of kinetic energy and about 10, times more energy that the photons that we see as light.
Neutrons have no electric charge, so there is no electric repulsion between neutrons and atomic nuclei, irrespective of the proton content of those nuclei. Free neutrons are produced in very large numbers in certain nuclear reactions in the interiors of evolved stars. Free neutrons are captured and incorporated by nuclei during supernova events, and subsequently they decay into protons within those nuclei.
This permits the formation of elements with atomic numbers higher than iron. The stellar nucleosynthesis reveals that elements like lithium Li , beryllium Be and boron B are actually consumed destroyed in nuclear reactions inside stars, whereas heavier elements like carbon C , nitrogen N , oxygen O and even iron Fe have a much higher likelihood of being produced and scattered back into the interstellar medium when stars die.
Planets like Earth incorporated, at formation, a large fraction of heavy elements that had been synthesized and released by generations of massive stars that existed before our solar system. The primordial composition of the material from which the very first generations of stars formed did not include heavy elements. As the core of a high-mass star collapses, its spinning speed increases due to the conservation of angular momentum.
The collapse also leads to high magnetic field density and strength, because it becomes concentrated in a small volume. Pulsars are rapidly spinning neutron stars with very strong magnetic fields. Subatomic particles, such as electrons, are stripped off the surface of the star and are accelerated along the magnetic lines. As a consequence, two beams of electromagnetic radiation are delivered away from the magnetic poles.
As the object rotates, the beam of light sweeps out the same way a lighthouse beam does. If that light beam happens to intercept our line of sight, we could detect the typical sharp pulses of emission in various domains radio, optical, X-ray. A caveat should be pointed out, however.
Different experiments suggest that atomic nuclei are quite spherical and all have essentially the same density, 2. Very old pulsars can be revived and spun-up if they get gravitationally bound to a companion star and syphon material from that. The material would form an accretion disk with a direction of rotation that matches the direction of rotation of the pulsar itself. The neutron star could gain angular momentum from the material that falls onto it.
This could be a reasonable explanation. The blue color of a star cluster is dominated by the higher-energy photons liberated by the most massive stars within it. Because such massive stars are also short-lived, the cluster must be young. On the other hand, if the light of a star cluster appears red, its light output must be dominated by evolved stars post main sequence, red giants and low-mass main-sequence stars.
The light from such stars would easily be outshone by the presence of high-mass stars in the cluster. Note that further complications could come from the fact that composition can also affect color, with a lower fraction of heavy elements being related to bluer stars.
The Sun is only one third of the estimated age of the universe. It formed as a large clump of gas and dust in the interstellar medium a. That original cloud had been previously seeded with elements heavier than helium synthesized in earlier generations of stars and then released into interstellar space mostly through supernovae explosions.
For stars along the main sequence, spectral type B indicates the highest mass, while type G is indicative of lower, Sun-like stellar masses, with A-type falling in an intermediate domain. Since more massive stars have shorter main-sequence lifetimes, Cluster 3 is the youngest and Cluster 1 is the oldest.
One could infer that Cluster 1 is about 10 billion years old because the Sun itself is a G-type star and has an estimated main-sequence lifetime of about 10 billion years. This allows us to directly explore the effect of stellar mass on the evolution of individual stars, in particular to verify that high-mass stars evolve more quickly than low-mass stars.
Firstly, only a very small number of high-mass stars form to begin with. Secondly, stars of high mass go through all the stages of their formation and evolution pre-main sequence, main sequence and post-main sequence very fast, finding their demise in supernovae events.
One can say that stellar surfaces and atmospheres still retain the least-altered information about the interstellar material from which those stars formed. Thus, the spectra revealing the abundance of massive elements give clues about the composition of the original nebula and reflect the preexisting, cumulative amount of star formation. Type Ia supernovae involve an accreting white dwarf, stealing material from a companion star.
The very presence of a white dwarf requires a rather long time for Sun-like stars to reach that stage. Thus, Type Ia should be far more prevalent in globular clusters, which are in fact some of the best indicators for the age of the galaxy itself. Type II supernovae represent the typical fate of high-mass stars, which are the more frequently members of open clusters in Milky Way and other star forming galaxies.
Note that Type Ia could also occur in parts of a galaxy other than its globular clusters. Therefore, in the distant astronomical future, galaxies will cease their star formation and slowly become dimmer and dimmer. We are a group of 24 writers having profound expertise in Business and Computer Science subjects.
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You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Summarize the physical characteristics of a neutron star. Compare and contrast the evolutionary stages of low, intermediate, and high-mass stars. The dominant mechanism by which high-mass stars generate energy on the main sequence is called the proton-proton chain.
What causes massive stars to lose mass at a high rate through stellar winds? If you measure the average brightness and pulsation period of a classical Cepheid variable star, you can also determine its rotation period.
Explain how Cepheid variables are used as standard candles. The CNO cycle is the more efficient mechanism for hydrogen fusion only in stars more massive than 1. In the CNO cycle, carbon is used as a catalyst for the fusion of hydrogen into helium. This means that three helium nuclei fuse to form carbon.
What is one way in which high-mass stars differ from low-mass stars? They are found at cooler temperatures on the main sequence. They fuse carbon through silicon without leaving the main sequence. Convection is important in their cores, which mixes up helium throughout the core.
They turn into red giants explosively. Most of their energy is produced by fission rather than fusion. The nuclear fusion reactions involved in the CNO cycle require much higher temperatures than the reactions within the p-p chain because carbon nuclei can exist only at extremely high temperatures. How does the formation of elements by nuclear fusion depend on the mass of the star?
With increasing mass, progressively heavier nuclei are forged deeper and deeper inside the star. With increasing mass, the heaviest elements can form only in the outermost layers of the star. With increasing mass, elements between helium and gold are formed in the cores. With increasing mass, only elements between helium and carbon can form in the cores.
All stars more massive than 8 solar masses create elements from helium through uranium in their cores. Massive stars synthesize chemical elements going from helium up to iron throughout the interior. The luminosity of a Cepheid star varies in time because the entire star pulsates from its core to its surface.
What mechanism drives the pulsations in Cepheid variables? The main difference between classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars is their masses. In the post-main sequence stages, high-mass stars follow quasi-horizontal paths in the H-R diagram. This means that their luminosity increases because they expand. Describe the evolutionary sequence of a high-mass star once it leaves the main sequence. A main-sequence star of 25 solar masses has about 25 times the luminosity of a solar-mass star recall the mass-luminosity relation presented in the previous chapter.
This is because the more massive star has a hotter core, and therefore nuclear burning proceeds more rapidly. An iron core cannot support a massive main-sequence star because iron has low nuclear binding energy. Explain why iron cannot undergo nuclear fusion. Relate binding energy to the release of energy via fission and fusion. Type I and Type II supernovae can be distinguished by what combination of observations? Which of these fusion reactions begins first in the core of a massive star?
The collapse of the core of a high-mass star at the end of its life lasts approximately one second. Illustrate the stages of core collapse in a massive star.
When the core of a massive star collapses, a neutron star forms because all the charged particles are ejected in the resulting explosion. Type Ia and Type II supernovae are respectively caused by what types of stars? The stellar energy is carried away primarily in the form of neutrinos when an iron core builds up. During the main-sequence evolution of a massive star, progressively more massive elements are fused in the core, giving the core support for longer and longer times. Massive stars explode soon after fusion to iron initiates because iron has the smallest binding energy of all elements.
Massive stars explode when they accrete mass from their binary star companion. In their post-main-sequence stages of evolution, the high-mass stars would spend progressively shorter and shorter periods of time in part because they are losing energy faster as neutrino cooling becomes more important. A few hours before a high-mass star is blasting its outer layers in a colossal explosion, specialized detectors on Earth would be able to reveal a spike in the number of iron nuclei.
Supernovae are very energetic events and for several weeks within their occurrence they can outshine all but which one of the following objects? Where did the iron in your blood come from? Nuclear reactions on the surfaces of neutron stars Nuclear reactions that took place in supernova explosions Nuclear reactions in the cores of low-mass stars Nuclear reactions in the cores of massive stars Nuclear reactions in red giant and horizontal-branch stars ANS: How does the light energy emitted by a supernova within the first few days compare with the energy emitted by the Sun during its entire lifetime?
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Free neutrons are produced in very large numbers in certain nuclear reactions in the interiors of evolved stars. Supernovae are very energetic events and for several weeks within their occurrence they can outshine all but which one of the following objects?
Note that Type Ia could also occur in parts of a galaxy other than its globular clusters. Notice that the main sequence is missing the red, low-luminosity tail.
Crédits & mentions légales Editeur Association pour le Rayonnement de l'Opéra de Paris (AROP) Palais Garnier 8, rue Scribe Paris Tél.: 01 58 18 35 iThemes Overview.The material would form an accretion disk with a direction of rotation that matches the direction of rotation of the pulsar itself.
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