Almost dating quotes

30 Famous Quotes About Sports and Competition Explanation of the famous quotes in The Grapes of Wrath, including all important speeches, comments, quotations, and monologues. The best collection ever of beautiful and shareable inspirational quotes, love quotes, motivational quotes and more. Interweaving the relative time scale with the atomic time scale poses certain problems because only certain types of rocks, chiefly the igneous variety, can be dated. Explanation of the famous quotes in The Grapes of Wrath, including all important speeches, comments, quotations, and monologues. The best collection ever of beautiful and shareable inspirational quotes, love quotes, motivational quotes and more.

almost dating quotes

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American Psycho () - Quotes - IMDb

After all, we all are human. Does this make any sense? They could finally work together in Macbeth And you feel the same way about them. Michael Fassbender was born in Heidelberg, Germany, to a German father, Josef, and an Irish mother, Adele (originally from Larne, County Antrim, in. Explanation of the famous quotes in Fahrenheit , including all important speeches, comments, quotations, and monologues. The hope is to help our youth get schmardt without having to learn the hard way - through their own terrible marriage mistakes.

Aug 18,  · What Netflix’s Autism Comedy Atypical Gets Right About Dating While on the Spectrum. Send contributions to: cmfce@mytiara.xyz Marriage Quotes Cartoons and Jokes Signs of the Times Wedding Readings, Wedding Toasts, Vows, Songs & Rituals. A list of EcoSalon’s favorite sports quotes that apply on and off the court.

Sports is human life in microcosm. -Howard Cosell. I’ve missed more than 9, shots. [Recurring line] Patrick Bateman: I have to return some videotapes.

A list of EcoSalon’s favorite sports quotes that apply on and off the court. Sports is human life in microcosm. -Howard Cosell. I’ve missed more than 9, shots. Michael Fassbender was born in Heidelberg, Germany, to a German father, Josef, and an Irish mother, Adele (originally from Larne, County Antrim, in. Explanation of the famous quotes in The Grapes of Wrath, including all important speeches, comments, quotations, and monologues.

30 Motivational Quotes from the Sports World

Do you know what Ed Gein said about women? So what did he say? One part wants me to take her out, talk to her, be real nice and sweet and treat her right. And what did the other part think? I have all the characteristics of a human being: My nightly bloodlust has overflown into my days. I feel lethal, on the verge of frenzy. I think my mask of sanity is about to slip. I need it for Not the fucking face, you piece of bitch trash!

Do you like Phil Collins? Too artsy, too intellectual. At the same time, it deepens and enriches the meaning of the preceding three albums. Christy, take off your robe. Listen to the brilliant ensemble playing of Banks, Collins and Rutherford.

You can practically hear every nuance of every instrument. Sabrina, remove your dress. In terms of lyrical craftsmanship, the sheer songwriting, this album hits a new peak of professionalism. Take the lyrics to Land of Confusion. In this song, Phil Collins addresses the problems of abusive political authority. In Too Deep is the most moving pop song of the s, about monogamy and commitment.

The song is extremely uplifting. Christy, get down on your knees so Sabrina can see your asshole. But I also think Phil Collins works best within the confines of the group, than as a solo artist, and I stress the word artist. This is Sussudio, a great, great song, a personal favorite. What do you think? And the lettering is something called Silian Rail. That is really nice. Eggshell with Romalian type. That is really super. Raised lettering, pale nimbus. The tasteful thickness of it.

It even has a watermark. Is something wrong, Patrick? Well, you can always be thinner There are a lot more important problems than Sri Lanka to worry about. Well, we have to end apartheid for one. And slow down the nuclear arms race, stop terrorism and world hunger. We have to provide food and shelter for the homeless, and oppose racial discrimination and promote civil rights, while also promoting equal rights for women.

We have to encourage a return to traditional moral values. Most importantly, we have to promote general social concern and less materialism in young people. He was into that whole Yale thing. What whole Yale thing? Well, for one thing, I think he was probably a closet homosexual who did a lot of cocaine. That whole Yale thing. My need to engage in homicidal behaviour on a massive scale cannot be corrected but, uh, I have no other way to fulfill my needs.

Well, I work on Wall Street Have you heard of it? You have a really nice place here, Paul. How much did you pay for it? Where are you going? I am just leaving. Look at that subtle off-white coloring. Oh my God, it even has a watermark! Jesus, McDermott, what does that have to do with anything? You spin a dreidel. Bateman, do you want me to fry you up some fucking potato pancakes?

Just cool it with the anti-Semitic remarks. The voice of reason I know my behavior can be Huey Lewis and the News. I just bought it on my way here. Not a big music fan, huh? No, I like music. Patrick, where did you get that overnight bag? Thousands of roses and lots of chocolate truffles. Godiva, and oysters in the half-shell. Patrick, we should do it. Your father practically owns the company. You can do anything you like, silly. You hate that job anyway. Because I want to fit in. I think if you stay, something bad will happen.

I think I might hurt you. No, I guess not. But we do, and relief washes over me in an awesome wave. What are you so fucking zany about? Paul Allen has mistaken me for this dickhead Marcus Halberstram. Marcus and I even go to the same barber, although I have a slightly better haircut.

What could you possibly be up to tonight? Grinch want for Christmas? What if they have a great personality? I know, I know. There are no girls with good personalities. A good personality consists of a chick with a little hard body, who will satisfy all sexual demands without being too slutty about things, and who essentially will keep her dumb fucking mouth shut.

The only girls with good personalities who are smart or maybe funny or halfway intelligent or talented, though god knows what the fuck that means, are ugly chicks. And this is because they have to make up for how fucking unnattractive they are. Are you dating anyone? Patrick, stop calling me pumpkin, OK? I have a lunch meeting with Cliff Huxtable at the Four Seasons in 20 minutes. Hamilton, have a holly-jolly Christmas. Did you know that, Christie?

You own a Whitney Houston CD? I want to get high off this, not sprinkle it on my fucking oatmeal. Your compliment was sufficient, Luis. Not quite blonde, are we? More of a dirty blonde.

This is really a beehive of, uh, activity, Halberstam. This place is hot, very hot. Listen, the mud soup and the charcoal arugula are outrageous here. Give me a break. Jeez, Patrick, I mean Marcus, what are you thinking? Why would Ivana be at Texarkana? A bold stripe shirt calls for solid colored or discreetly patterned suits and ties. Boone Pickens just walked in. Hasta la vista, baby. Timothy is the only interesting person I know.

Courtney is almost perfect looking. Of course, this was a close as Kelvin ever came to publicly recanting his position. What is especially telling about this whole story is the conclusion of the absolute truth of the conclusion based on premises that are weak, or at least not adequately demonstrated. There is perhaps no beguilement more insidious and dangerous than an elaborate and elegant mathematical process built upon unfortified premises.

Following the discovery of radioactivity by Becquerel , the possibility of using this phenomenon as a means for determining the age of uranium-bearing minerals was demonstrated by Rutherford In his study Rutherford measured the U and He He is an intermediate decay product of U contents of uranium-bearing minerals to calculate an age.

One year later Boltwood developed the chemical U-Pb method. During this same period of time Thomson , Campbell and Wood demonstrated that potassium was radioactive and emitted beta-particles. The first isotopes of potassium 39 K and 41 K were reported by Aston Kohlhorster reported that potassium also emitted gamma radiation.

Newman and Walke also suggested the possibility that 40 K could decay to 40 Ar. As a test, Von Weizsacker suggested looking for excess 40 Ar in older K-bearing rocks. Thompson and Rowlands , using a cloud chamber, confirmed that 40 Ar was the decay product of 40 K undergoing electron capture. The rapid development of the K-Ar dating method soon followed. In these studies the isotopic ratios of all the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe of neutron-irradiated meteorites were measured.

This led to the discovery of 39 Ar, which is derived from 39 K by Merrihue Dating rocks by radioactive timekeepers is simple in theory, but almost all of the different methods except for the isochron methods - see below rely on these few basic assumptions: All Assumptions Valid for Billions of Years. There is also a difficulty in measuring precisely very small amounts of the various isotopes.

There is, of course, one radiometric dating method that appears to overcome the vital "zero date problem". The isochron dating method theoretically overcomes the need to know the initial ratio of parent and daughter isotopes. It will be covered in more detail below. For now, we will look at those methods that do fall under the above assumptions.

Interweaving the relative time scale with the atomic time scale poses certain problems because only certain types of rocks, chiefly the igneous variety, can be dated directly by radiometric methods; but these rocks do not ordinarily contain fossils.

Igneous rocks are those such as granite and basalt, which crystallize from molten material called "magma".

Some have questioned the theory that granite could be formed from magma this has never been observed or duplicated in the lab. Some, like Robert Gentry, have even argued that Radio-halos from rapidly decaying radioactive isotopes in granite seem to indicate that the granites were formed almost instantly.

Of course there seem to me to be fairly reasonable explanations for this observation which may allow for more slowly forming granitic rocks.

For instance, polonium radiohalos are sometimes associated with polonium bands generated by the polonium being transported by hydrothermal fluids along fractures. Many granites that contain polonium radiohalos appear from their geologic contexts to have been formed during the Flood, and therefore cannot have been primordial that is, created granites as Gentry has suggested Link.

Most sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, limestone, and shale which do contain fossils are related to the radiometric time scale by bracketing them within time zones that are determined by dating appropriately selected igneous rocks in lava flows, or weathered from lava flows. Potassium - Argon and Argon - Argon dating are based on the current understanding that radioactive Potassium decays to the stable form, Argon with a half-life of approximately 1.

The same principle holds true for the other isotope dating methods. Radioactive decay occurs at a constant exponential or geometric rate.

The rate of decay is proportional to the number of parent atoms present. There are some circumstances that can affect this rate such as magnetic fluctuations etc But in general, this rate is felt by the vast majority of mainstream scientists to be a fundamental constant.

That was until August of Jenkins et. If magnetic fluxuations or other influencing forces are strong enough, radiometric decay rates could be much more significantly effected. For example, if there are equal amounts of parent and daughter isotopes, then one half-life has passed. If there are three times as many daughter isotopes as parent, then two half-lives have passed, and so on. Most minerals, which contain radioactive isotopes, are in igneous rocks. The majority of scientists today assume that the dates they give indicate the time the magma cooled.

This also assumes that there was no initial daughter isotopes contained in the magma at the time of cooling. The assumption is that at least a great majority of the isotope present was the parent isotope.

This parent isotope then degraded to the daughter isotope over time. Consider the following statement by Dalrymple, a well-known geologist: This is because 40 Ar is an inert gas that does not combine chemically with any other element and so escapes easily from rocks when they are heated.

Thus, while a rock is molten, the 40 Ar formed by the decay of 40 K escapes from the liquid. So, according to Dalrymple, K-Ar or Ar-Ar are the only methods that have little or no concern for the presence of initial daughter isotopes. This means that all the other radioisotope-dating methods excepting isochron methods are brought into serious question. The reason for this is because unless the initial ratio of parent to daughter isotope is known, the current ratio would be worthless as a means of determining elapsed time.

A rock cannot be said to be millions or billions of years old if there is no way of knowing what the original composition of the rock was at the time that it was formed.

The assumption for the K-Ar method is that all argon escapes at the time of rock formation because argon is a gas while potassium is not. Likewise, the other non-isochron dating methods, such as uranium-lead, also fall short because who is to say wh en the "zero date" was when there was only parent isotope and no daughter?

Because of this problem, it might be a significant error to simply assume that all original isotopes present in a given rock were parent isotopes. This assumption has been shown to be faulty. Lets now consider how fossils are dated with many of these methods, such as the potassium-argon method. The mineralized fossils themselves are not directly datable by radiometric techniques. The sedimentary rock that buried them is also not datable.

It is assumed then that the fossil is as old as the igneous rock fragment that it is buried with. Aside from the zero-date problems noted above, one might consider the possibility that the fossil might not be as old as the sediment that buried it in the first place.

For example, lets say that my pet dog dies. I decide to bury it in the back yard. Is the dog as old as the dirt that I buried it in? Likewise, who is to say that some fossils were not buried in sedimentary material that was weathered from significantly more ancient formations? Potassium-Argon and Argon-Argon Dating. Since Potassium-Argon and Argon-Argon dating techniques are the most common and are considered, even by geologists, to be among the most accurate of all the radioisotope dating methods, lets consider these in particular detail.

Argon is a noble gas. The main isotopes of argon in terrestrial systems are 40 Ar Naturally occurring 40 K decays to stable 40 Ar Minerals are dated by measurement of the concentration of potassium, and the amount of radiogenic 40 Ar that has accumulated.

For example, if 40 Ar is lost by diffusion while the rock cooled, the age-dates represent the time elapsed since the rock cooled sufficiently for diffusive losses to be insignificant.

Or, if excess 40 Ar is present in the rock, the calculated age-dates are too old. Radioactive 39 Ar decays back to 39 K by beta emission with a half-life of years, but the decay is slow compared to the analysis time and can be ignored Faure, How is this calibrated? Also, even if the argon-argon dating method does eliminate the "contamination" problem, it does not solve the problem of original argon. Did the clock get reset to zero when the volcano erupted?

Or, was there some argon trapped in the rocks originally? It must be first calibrated against a sample of "known age". Recent testing of volcanic material from Mt. Calibration Against Pliny the Younger was written by P.

Renne tested Ar-Ar dating by checking it against the 79 A. The true age was years. The test was off only 7 years. The conclusions of Renne and his team read as follows: Of note however is that this test was not double blinded, and the number of such tests is not statistically significant as far as scientific analysis is concerned.

Although interesting, it is basically a case study report, and as such it has very little scientific weight as far as statistical predictability. In the first place, I am not primarily concerned with dating meteorites, or Precambrian rocks. I will begin this section with a short discussion from Andrew Snelling, an associate professor of geology in El Cajon, California.

However, it is well established that volcanic rocks e. If so, then the K-Ar and Ar-Ar "dating" of crustal rocks would be similarly questionable. In other experiments muscovite was synthesized from a colloidal gel under similar temperatures and Ar pressures, the resultant muscovite retaining up to 0.

This is approximately 2, times as much Ar as is found in natural muscovite. Thus under certain conditions Ar can be incorporated into minerals which are supposed to exclude Ar when they crystallize.

Thus all K-Ar and Ar-Ar "dates" of crustal rocks are questionable, as well as fossil "dates" calibrated by them. In summary, many scientists assume that since argon is a gas, all of it should have escaped from the lava before it cooled. Therefore, all the 40 Ar in the rock should be the result of decay from potassium. Based on the measured potassium, argon, and the decay rate, they calculate an age.

That is why it does not matter how long the magma was in the volcano before it erupted. They believe that when the volcano erupts, all the 40 Ar escapes, and the atomic clock gets reset to zero. If all the argon escaped from hot lava of volcanoes that erupted long ago, then all the argon should escape from the hot lava of volcanoes that erupt in modern times too.

But modern lava does have 40 Ar in it. This is known as the "excess argon problem". Scientists are well aware of this problem and use various calibration methods to "correct" for this problem. However, how are these calibration methods established? Upon what basis are they validated? Calibration of the Argon-Argon Dating Method. Let me emphasize again that this dating method is a relative dating method.

In other words, it must be calibrated relative to a different dating method before it can be used to date materials relative to that other dating method. This same problem exists for all other relative radiometric dating techniques. Fission track dating is a radioisotopic dating method that depends on the tendency of uranium Uranium to undergo spontaneous fission as well as the usual decay process.

The large amount of energy released in the fission process ejects the two nuclear fragments into the surrounding material, causing damage paths called fission tracks. These tracks can be made visible under light microscopy by etching with an acid solution so they can then be counted. The usefulness of this as a dating technique stems from the tendency of some materials to lose their fission-track records when heated, thus producing samples that contain fission-tracks produced since they last cooled down.

The useful age range of this technique is thought to range from years to million years before present BP , although error estimates are difficult to assess and rarely given. Generally it is thought to be most useful for dating in the window between 30, and , years BP.

A problem with fission-track dating is that the rates of spontaneous fission are very slow, requiring the presence of a significant amount of uranium in a sample to produce useful numbers of tracks over time.

Additionally, variations in uranium content within a sample can lead to large variations in fission track counts in different sections of the same sample. Because of such potential errors, most forms of fission track dating use a form of calibration or "comparison of spontaneous and induced fission track density against a standard of known age.

The principle involved is no different from that used in many methods of analytical chemistry, where comparison to a standard eliminates some of the more poorly controlled variables. In the zeta method, the dose, cross section, and spontaneous fission decay constant, and uranium isotope ratio are combined into a single constant.

Of course, this means that the fission track dating method is not an independent method of radiometric dating, but is dependent upon the reliability of other dating methods. The reason for this is also at least partly due to the fact that the actual rate of fission track production. Some experts suggest using a rate constant of 6. Wagner, Letters to Nature , June 16, For example, all fission reactions produce neutrons. What happens if fission from some other radioactive element, like U or some other radioisotope, produces tracks?

Might not these trackways be easily confused with those created by fission of U ? The human element is also important here. Fission trackways have to be manually counted. Geologists themselves recognize the problem of mistaking non-trackway imperfections as fission tracks. For example, it is recommended that one choose samples with as few vesicles and microlites as possible. But, how is one to do this if they are so easily confused with true trackways? Fortunately, there are a few other "hints".

True tracks are straight, never curved. They also tend to show characteristic ends that demonstrate "younging" of the etched track. True tracks are thought to form randomly and have a random orientation. Therefore, trackways that show a distribution pattern tend not to be trusted as being "true".

Certain color and size patterns within a certain range are also used as helpful hints. This is yet another reason why calibration with other dating techniques is used in fission track dating.

And, it gets even worse. Fairly recently, Raymond Jonckheere and Gunther Wagner American Minerologist, published results showing that there are two kinds of real fission trackways that had "not been identified previously.

As it turns out, the "stable tracks do not shorten significantly even when heated to temperatures well above those normally sufficient for complete annealing of fission tracks. The tracks through fluid are also interesting.

They are "excessively long". This is because a fission fragment traveling through a fluid inclusion does so without appreciable energy loss. Such features, if undetected, "can distort the temperature-time paths constructed on the basis of confined fission-track-length measurements. These problems have resulted in several interesting contradictions, despite calibration.

For example, Naeser and Fleischer Harvard University showed that, depending upon the calibration method chosen, the calculated age of a given rock from Cerro de Mercado, Mexico in this case could be different from each other by a factor of " sixty or more " - - "which give geologically unreasonable ages.

In addition, published data concerning the length of fission tracks and the annealing of minerals imply that the basic assumptions used in an alternative procedure, the length reduction-correction method, are also invalid for many crystal types and must be approached with caution unless individually justified for a particular mineral. No wonder the authors recommend only going with results that do not provide "geologically unreasonable ages".

Another example of this sort of aberrancy comes in the form of glass globs known as "tektites". Tektites are thought to be produced when a meteor impacts the Earth. When the massive impact creates a lot of heat, which melts the rocks of the Earth and send them hurtling through the atmosphere at incredible speed. As these fragments travel through the atmosphere, they become superheated and malleable as they melt to a read-hot glow, and are formed and shaped as they fly along.

It is thought that the date of the impact can be dated by using various radiometric dating methods to date the tektites. For example, Australian tektites known as australites show K-Ar and fission track ages clustering around , years. The problem is that their stratigraphic ages show a far different picture. Edmund Gill, of the National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, while working the Port Campbell area of western Victoria uncovered 14 australite samples in situ above the hardpan soil zone. This zone had been previously dated by the radiocarbon method at seven locales, the oldest dating at only 7, radiocarbon years Gill Charcoal from the same level as that containing specimen 9 yielded a radiocarbon age of 5, years.

The possibility of transport from an older source area was investigated and ruled out. Since the "Port Campbell australites include the best preserved tektites in the world Aboriginal implements have been discovered in association with the australites. A fission-track age of , years and a K-Ar age of , years for these same australites unavoidably clashes with the obvious stratigraphic and archaeological interpretation of just a few thousand years.

Commenting on the above findings by Lovering and his associates, the editors of the book, Tektites, state that, "in this paper they have built an incontrovertible case for the geologically young age of australite arrival on earth" Barnes and Barnes , p. Here we have the K-Ar and fission track dating methods agreeing with each other, but disagreeing dramatically with the radiocarbon and historical dating methods.

These findings suggest that, at least as far as tektites are concerned, the complete loss of 40 Ar and therefore the resetting of the radiometric clock may not be valid Clark et al.

It has also been shown that different parts of the same tektite have significantly different K-Ar ages McDougall and Lovering, This finding suggests a real disconnect when it comes to the reliability of at least two of the most commonly used radiometric dating techniques.

In short, it seems like fission track dating is tenuous a best - even when given every benefit of the doubt. It is just too subjective and too open to pitfalls in interpretation to be used as any sort of independent measure of estimating elapsed time. There is a methodological problem connected with the manner in which geologists infer the argon-retention abilities of different minerals.

Concerning the suitability of different minerals for K-Ar dating, Faure , p. By comparing the K-Ar dates yielded by such minerals with the expected ones. Thus the correctness of the geologic time scale is assumed in deciding which minerals are suitable for dating.

For example, concerning the use of glauconies for K-Ar dating, Faure , p. It is also interesting that Faure , pp.

However, if these "known" ages are incorrect, then fission track dating that is based on these ages is also incorrect. Thus fission track dating is not an independent test that helps to verify the accuracy of other tests. The result is that radiometric dating in general is in danger of being based on circular reasoning. Inconsistencies and other Problems with various Radiometric Dating Techniques.

Raul Esperante teamed up with Dr. This formation is approximately meters thick and consists of many layers of sedimentary rock. Yet, within essentially all of these layers are hundreds of very well preserved fossil whales. In fact, many of them are so well preserved that their baleen is still intact and attached in the usual position that baleen is attached in living whales. Usually baleen detaches within a few days or even hours after death.

Some of the fossilized whales and dolphins also have preserved remains of skin outlines around the fossilized bones. The skeletons themselves are generally well articulated and show no evidence of scavenging or significant decay. The fossil whales must have died and been completely buried by diatomaceous sediment within a very short time of death no scavenging, decay, significant disarticulation, or loss of baleen.

The layers are very smooth without significant erosion or unevenness to suggest the passage of time between layers. There is no significant bioturbation very few tunnels or evidence of trace fossils or digging within the sedimentary layers that would be expected given long periods of time between the formation of subsequent layers. There are finely preserved shards of volcanic glass within all of the layers that have very sharp edges without the usual rounding that would be expected due to the relatively rapid ability of water to dissolve silica if long periods of time took place during the build up of these sedimentary layers.

These layers were deposited in shallow seas with evidence of flowing currents, which works against the potential counter-hypothesis that these layers were formed under anoxic conditions. Cosmogenic nuclides are isotopes that are produced by interaction of cosmic rays with the nucleus of the atom. The various isotopes produced have different half lives see table.

Cosmogenic dating using these isotopes are becoming a popular way to date the time of surface exposure of rocks and minerals to cosmic radiation. While the idea is fairly straightforward, there are just a few problems with this dating method. To illustrate this problem, consider that 3 H dating has been used to establish the theory that the driest desert on Earth, Coastal Range of the Atacama desert in northern Chile which is 20 time drier than Death Valley has been without any rain or significant moisture of any kind for around 25 million years.

The only problem with this theory is that recently investigators have discovered fairly extensive deposits of very well preserved animal droppings associated with grasses as well as human-produced artifacts like arrowheads and the like. Radiocarbon dating of these finding indicate very active life in at least semiarid conditions within the past 11, years - a far cry from 25 million years. As it turns out, cosmogenic isotope dating has a host of problems. The production rate is a huge issue.

Production rates depend upon several factors to include "latitude, altitude, surface erosion rates, sample composition, depth of sample, variations of cosmic and solar ray flux, inclusion of other radioactive elements and their contribution to target nucleotide production, variations in the geomagnetic field, muon capture reactions, various shielding effects, and, of course, the reliability of the calibration methods used. So many variables become somewhat problematic.

This problem has been highlighted by certain studies that have evaluated the published production rates of certain isotopes which have been published by different groups of scientists. In short, "different analytical approaches at different localities were used to work out 36 Cl production rates, which are discordant.

So, what are the possible explanations for this "discordance"? Uncertainty in the independent chronology used to determine the age of surfaces used to calibrate a Cl production rate ex. There are 3 different latitude-altitude scaling systems in use worked out by different researchers.

Whole rock analysis vs. It seems that the whole rock analysis method and the resulting optimization problem may underestimate the significance of other production pathways, i. Fe and Ti spallation? Different Methods for Dating the Himalayan Mountains. The Himalayan mountains are said by most modern scientists to have started their uplift or orogeny some 50 million years ago. However, recently in Yang Wang et. The following is the data from these tests: If the present data are representative, argon of slightly anomalous composition can be expected in approximately one out of three volcanic rocks.

Dalrymple may have a point. It seems like rocks dating within one or two million years cannot be accurately dated by K-Ar techniques just because of the relatively wide ranges of error.

However, can rocks that are tens or hundreds of millions of years be more accurately dated? Perhaps, if these rocks were in fact closed systems and were not subject to contamination by external argon. Investigators also have found that excess 40 Ar is trapped in the minerals within lava flows. The obvious conclusion most investigators have reached is that the excess 40 Ar had to be present in the molten lavas when extruded, which then did not completely degas as they cooled, the excess 40 Ar becoming trapped in constituent minerals and the rock fabrics themselves.

However, from whence comes the excess 40 Ar, that is, 40 Ar which cannot be attributed to atmospheric argon or in situ radioactive decay of 40 K? It is not simply "magmatic" argon? Funkhouser and Naughton found that the excess 40 Ar in the Hualalai flow, Hawaii, resided in fluid and gaseous inclusions in olivine, plagioclase, and pyroxene in ultramafic xenoliths in the basalt, and was sufficient to yield "ages" of 2.

Many recent studies confirm the mantle source of excess 40 Ar. Hawaiian volcanism is typically cited as resulting from a mantle plume, most investigators now conceding that excess 40 Ar in the lavas, including those from the active Loihi and Kilauea volcanoes, is indicative of the mantle source area from which the magmas came.

Considerable excess 40 Ar measured in ultramafic mantle xenoliths from Kerguelen Archipelago in the southern Indian Ocean likewise is regarded as the mantle source signature of hotspot volcanism. Further confirmation comes from diamonds, which form in the mantle and are carried by explosive volcanism into the upper crust and to the surface. When Zashu et al. The conventional K-Ar dating method was applied to the dacite flow from the new lava dome at Mount St.

These dates are, of course, preposterous. The fundamental dating assumption no radiogenic argon was present when the rock formed is brought into question. Instead, data from the Mount St.

Helens dacite argue that significant "excess" argon was present when the lava solidified in Phenocrysts of orthopyroxene, hornblende and plagioclase are interpreted to have occluded argon within their mineral structures deep in the magma chamber and to have retained this argon after emplacement and solidification of the dacite. Orthopyroxene retains the most argon, followed by hornblende, and finally, plagioclase.

The lava dome at Mount St. Helens dates very much older than its true age because phenocryst minerals inherit argon from the magma. The study of this Mount St. Helens dacite brings yet another question to mind: How accurate are K-Ar "ages" from the many other phenocryst-containing lava flows world-wide? Potassium is about 2. Argon is about 3. We can assume then that the magma is probably about 2.

Now, Lets say we are trying to date a one billion year old rock. How much of it would be 40 K? This would leave us with a 0. This gives about 0. This is about one ten millionth of the mass of the rock, a very tiny fraction. If the rock weighed one gram, the Ar in the rock would weight one ten millionth of a gram. And yet, with a relatively large amount of argon in the air, argon filtering up from rocks below, excess argon in lava, the fact that argon and potassium are water soluble, and the fact that argon is mobile in rock and is a gas, we are still expecting this wisp of argon gas to tell us how old the rock is?

The percentage of 40 Ar is even less for younger rocks. For example, it would be about one part in million for rocks in the vicinity of million years old. However, to get just one part in 10 million of argon in a rock in a thousand years, we would only need to get one part in 10 billion entering the rock each year.

This would be less than one part in a trillion entering the rock each day, on the average. This would suffice to give a rock an average computed potassium-argon age of over a billion years.

Some geochronologists believe that a possible cause of excess argon is that argon diffuses into certain minerals progressively with time and pressure. Significant quantities of argon may be introduced into a mineral even at pressures as low as one bar.

We can also consider the average abundance of argon in the crust. This implies a radiometric age of over 4 billion years. So a rock can get a very old radiometric age just by having average amounts of potassium and argon. It seems reasonable to me that the large radiometric ages are simply a consequence of mixing, and not related to ages at all, at least not necessarily the ages of the rocks themselves.

It seems to me to be a certainty that water and gas will enter most, if not all, volcanic type rocks through tiny openings and invalidate almost all K-Ar ages. Rocks are not sealed off from the environment. This contamination would seem to be more and more of a problem the older the rock became. In fact, it probably rises to the top of the magma, artificially increasing its concentration there. Now, some rocks in the crust are believed not to hold their argon, so this argon will enter the spaces between the rocks.

Leaching also occurs, releasing argon from rocks. Heating of rocks can also release argon. Argon is released from lava as it cools, and probably filters up into the crust from the magma below, along with helium and other radioactive decay products. All of this argon is being produced and entering the air and water in between the rocks, and gradually filtering up to the atmosphere.

So this argon that is being produced will leave some rocks and enter others. Different Dating Methods Agree. It is often said that a great many dating methods, used on a single specimen, will agree with each other, thus establishing the accuracy of the date given.

In reality, the overwhelming majority of measurements on the fossil bearing geologic column are all done using one method, the K-Ar method Recall that both potassium and argon are water soluble, and argon a gas is mobile in rock. Thus the agreement found between many dates does not necessarily reflect an agreement between different methods, but rather the agreement of the K-Ar method with itself Especially noting that Dalrymple suggested that only K-Ar dating methods were at all trust worthy.

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Coments: 3
  1. Dogrel

    In the zeta method, the dose, cross section, and spontaneous fission decay constant, and uranium isotope ratio are combined into a single constant. If all the argon escaped from hot lava of volcanoes that erupted long ago, then all the argon should escape from the hot lava of volcanoes that erupt in modern times too. The wrong males are supposed to be barred from mating and procreating. The whole album has a clear, crisp sound, and a new sheen of consummate professionalism that really gives the songs a big boost.

  2. samuile88

    They are unlikely to mention abuse because these were not highly conflicted marriages.

  3. borushok

    Well, you can always be thinner Lead takes 24 minutes to decay into bismuth People make a terrible mistake in being angry with their marriage partner and cutting them off sexually as a way of arousing great passion. No wedding gifts were returned.

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