What information can radiocarbon dating tell paleontologists

How Good are those Young-Earth Arguments: Geologic Column Extremely interesting, the confluence of religious idols and erotic art gives depth to each. Make sure that you arrive well in time to slowly walk around the temples. The collections at Rancho La Brea are still at the core of late Pleistocene North American research today. Staff, Research Associates, professional paleontologists. Carbondated dinosaur bones are less than 40, years old. carbon dating dinosaur bones carbon dated dinosaur fossils date c Extremely interesting, the confluence of religious idols and erotic art gives depth to each. Make sure that you arrive well in time to slowly walk around the temples. The collections at Rancho La Brea are still at the core of late Pleistocene North American research today. Staff, Research Associates, professional paleontologists.

what information can radiocarbon dating tell paleontologists

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Holocene Epoch - Holocene environment and biota | geochronology | mytiara.xyz

Continuing volcanic eruptions over a period of years dead trees last a long time! However, other evidence suggests that those bifacial tools had not been developed before the erectus hunters spread out of Africa.

Beau Anderson on October 22, at Interweaving the relative time scale with the atomic time scale poses certain problems because only certain types of rocks, chiefly the igneous variety, can be dated.

Providing another witness of Jesus Christ is the primary purpose of the Book of Mormon. His teachings are the central reason for this sacred Book. Within the Book of. This interpretation is supported by the presence of abundant diatoms.

Chas assigns both to work on outer strips where we are working to cut back to intact layers. Strictly speaking, Lyuba is a paleontological, not archaeological, discovery. Holocene Epoch - Holocene environment and biota: In formerly glaciated regions, the Holocene has been a time for the reinstitution of ordinary processes of subaerial.

How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments? A Close Look at Dr. Hovind's List of Young-Earth Arguments and Other Claims by Dave E. Matson. The history of our planet is far more complex than most people would dare to imagine. According to the commonly accepted version of history that is taught in. HUMAN ORIGINS. The International History Project. Robert Guisepi. Date: In the 4th century BC, the Greek philosopher Plato somewhat flippantly defined "man" as.

How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments? A Close Look at Dr. Hovind's List of Young-Earth Arguments and Other Claims by Dave E. Matson. Holocene Epoch - Holocene environment and biota: In formerly glaciated regions, the Holocene has been a time for the reinstitution of ordinary processes of subaerial. Carbondated dinosaur bones are less than 40, years old. carbon dating dinosaur bones carbon dated dinosaur fossils date c

Holocene environment and biota

Made up of red, black, and white geometric shapes painted 11, years ago, the small panel bore an uncanny resemblance to the early work of modernist masters Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee. The rules guiding our selection of the top discoveries of disqualified the Djade al Mugahara mural from being included, since archaeologists announced the discovery of the masterwork in But archaeology is an incremental science, every season of excavation builds on the one before it, and the significance of a discovery made one year may only become apparent after further work.

Although X-rays and CT scans carried out in showed that an arrow had been wedged in his shoulder, this new evidence suggests the arrow inflicted the fatal blow after which, the poor guy fell, hit his head, and suffered a brain hemorrhage.

Many tattoo artists feel they are carrying on his tradition even today, a phenomenon that may have had a role in another significant story this year.

One of them, his B. History tells us that Alexander, after laying siege to the massive fort for seven months, made his final assault by having his engineers build a half-mile causeway connecting the island to the mainland—a stunning feat. But a study published in May posits that Alexander got assistance from a submerged sandbar, so he crossed water only a yard or two deep. The frozen carcass of a baby woolly mammoth discovered in Russia last summer is the most complete example of the species ever discovered.

What counts as archaeology? Basically, any discovery connected to the human past made by people who call themselves archaeologists is considered fair game. And when paleontologists find the remains of our hominid ancestors, we cover that too. X-rays of her body revealed heartbreaking details, like the fact that she had nascent tusks no larger than a human finger.

More discoveries are likely to come in , when the baby mammoth travels to Japan for CT-scanning. Strictly speaking, Lyuba is a paleontological, not archaeological, discovery.

But every piece of information she can tell us about her brief life brings us closer to re-creating her world, a landscape she shared with our Paleolithic ancestors. This computer reconstruction of Angkor Wat is based in part on a new map of the site and the vast urban landscape that surrounded it.

But it continues to inspire more questions than answers, the most fundamental being why the sophisticated Khmer Empire collapsed. Their map covers more than 1, square miles, detailing thousands of features that were part of an elaborate irrigation system. It shows an urban center surrounded by dispersed agricultural villages, local temples, and small reservoirs.

The team found evidence of silted canals and breached waterworks that suggest the people of Angkor were eventually unable to maintain the vast irrigation system because of erosion and increased flooding.

Whether they are mother-and-daughter species or two sisters, the relationship between Homo habilis and Homo erectus is becoming strained. A pair of discoveries near Lake Ileret in Kenya call into question the idea that H. A previously discovered H. The discovery of a Homo habilis jawbone and a Homo erectus skull that are close in age has paleontologists rethinking the idea that H. Scholars have long assumed the Spaniards first introduced chickens to the New World along with horses, pigs, and cattle.

An international team, including bioarchaeologist Alice Storey of the University of Auckland, made the startling discovery after analyzing a recently excavated chicken bone from the Chilean site of El Arenal, a settlement of the Mapuche, a people who lived on the southern fringe of the Inca empire from about A.

Radiocarbon dating shows the El Arenal chicken lived sometime between a. In , Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro recorded the presence of chickens in Peru, where the Inca used them in religious ceremonies. All this serves to point out the need for caution in identifying animals in scriptures.

In some cases the range of suggestions is staggering. One approach is to simply follow previous translations. Another approach taken by translators is to derive a meaning from the Hebrew root of the animal name and then associate it with an animal that has characteristics or behavior that fits with that meaning.

But this approach has had limited success. Then a Hebrew name would be associated with an appropriate animal, bearing in the mind the known habitat, characteristics and behavior of the animal chosen.

A second challenge for Bible translators has to do with translating animal names in the Biblical languages into target languages. In some languages this poses fewer difficulties, but in others this can pose interesting challenges. There were only the following land animals in West Greenland: The comparison is, however, unsatisfactory at a very important point, because the caribous are not tame animals and the pastoral culture which pervades the Bible was quite unknown to the Greenlanders.

Crocodiles live in warm waters of both the Middle East Egypt for example and in Mesoamerica. The American Crocodile Crocodylus acutus is the most numerous of extant crocodiles here, and can reach a length of more than 20 feet.

It can be a ferocious predator, with large individuals even attacking full-grown cattle and humans. While the mention of dragons is made metaphorically in scriptures, it seems reasonable to assume that a known type of animal was represented. A majority of animals mentioned in the Book of Mormon are domesticated ones.

This makes sense because these represent ones most useful to man. However, the Lamanites did at least maintain flocks, presumably of sheep Alma They brought the most useful ones practical to bring in their barges from the Old World Ether 6: In addition to sheep and goats, the later mention in the Jaredite record of cattle, oxen, cows, horses and asses Ether 9: It might have been that the larger animals e.

This would have alleviated space and food problems. Some of these could well have been domesticated, and apparently were Ether 9: There is no mention in the Nephite record of animals being brought to America by Lehi and his group, although they might have done so. It is stated, however, that they found animals upon their arrival in the Promised Land.

Ones mentioned are the cow, ox, ass, horse, goat and wild goat. Based on animals now living in North America including Mesoamerica , there would have been many, many other kinds of mammals alone when both the Jaredites and the Nephites arrived. So, the Book of Mormon account of kinds of animals brought over or found native to the New World is extremely incomplete. To illustrate this, North America has indigenous species of mammals.

A problematic one, though, is the elephant Ether 9: The earliest descriptions of the mammoth in the scientific literature have referred to this pachyderm as an elephant — which indeed it is.

The most widespread and abundant North American mammoth was Mammuthus columbi. This in all probability was the elephant referred to in Ether 9: This particular mammoth shows a very close relationship to the Indian or Asian elephant, Elephas maximus the circus elephant. These two proboscideans have a closer relationship to one another than either has to the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. The potential significance of this is that the Indian elephant is fairly easily tamed and trained but not actually domesticated , while the African elephant is not.

Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that Mammuthus columbi could also be domesticated. Archaeological evidence supports the fact that the Indian elephant was domesticated back to at least B. If these people traveled through Asia as thought by Hugh Nibley 41 Jared and his group possibly observed men working elephants.

They would have seen how useful these large mammals were. It should be realized that there is a fine line between taming and domesticating.

Most mammals as well as some other animals can be tamed if raised from babies. However, relatively few can be truly domesticated. Taming simply means to make an animal docile and submissive. Scientifically, domestication is the process of changing an animal genetically through selective breeding to the benefit of man.

Taming is the process whereby an animal simply becomes accustomed to a human s. It needs to be kept in mind when discussing Book of Mormon animals that the Lehite, Mulekite and Jaredite migrants may have applied Old World terms to New World species.

Thus when in 1 Nephi This will be explained in a following section. Many migrant peoples through time have commonly applied familiar names to animals on lands where they immigrated. As far back as , Edward Vining regarded this as a natural thing to do. What we learn from cross-cultural encounters with strange or unfamiliar animals suggests that the answer may not always be clear.

An example is when Europeans first began coming to the Indies. Sometimes the uniqueness of the animal poses even greater difficulties of description. It seems prudent to discuss extinctions in this article as this relates to some of the Book of Mormon animals. Extinction is a topic that has been extensively dealt with in the scientific literature. Of specific interest here are the widespread extinctions that occurred at the close of the Pleistocene or Ice Age Epoch, especially throughout North America.

Cureloms and cumoms mentioned in the Book of Ether 9: He seems to simply have transliterated the words on the gold plates from which he was translating.

Sometimes extinctions will affect a single species, but more often they affect many because of interconnections of life forms. In the history of the earth there have been times of mass extinctions in a short period of time.

It should be realized that extinctions are a natural process in the history of the earth. As conditions are ever changing on earth, life forms are forced to adapt, or else die out i.

The dying out of the mammoth, horse and ass in North America presents only a small part of the mass extinctions that occurred at the end of the Pleistocene. This particular extinction event affected mostly large mammals. What causes organisms plant and animal to become extinct? Basically it is a change in the environment, usually sudden in the geologic sense, to which organisms cannot adjust. This might be due to climatic changes, changes in worldwide sea level, volcanic activity, atmospheric changes, bolide impacts, new, more competitive species arriving in the area, a disease for which the organism has no defense, as well as many other possibilities.

In recent times man has caused the extinction of many organisms. While some Pleistocene extinctions were possibly caused by man this is still a hotly debated topic , most extinctions apparently have been due to environmental factors such as those named above.

It is therefore vital to have a clear understanding of when these animals actually became extinct on this Continent. It should be realized that obtaining an exact date for the last surviving member of any extinct species would be next to impossible. Winning the lottery would be thousands of times more likely. In practice, however, there is a very low probability of discovering fossil remains of the last members of any species, so ages for extinction based on dated macrofossil finds will likely be [show as]older than the true ages.

And even though an animal might have been abundant in an area in the past, its remains including fossils could well go undetected, or not even exist. Yet remains of these horses are now nearly nonexistent. However, it was later found that they were indeed continually present from prehistoric times to the present.

The tapir a relative of the horse and rhinoceros is known from the famous Pleistocene deposits of Rancho La Brea in Los Angeles, California. However, only three small foot bones attest to its presence there.

Otherwise the existence of this animal there would have been unknown. The fossil record clearly shows that extinction is fact; but extinctions are not limited to the distant past.

Numerous extinctions have occurred in recent times as well, and are continuing. More than animal species not including insects and fish are known to have become extinct in just the last four hundred years most of these during the 19th and 20th Centuries.

A lesser known, but more positive, factor is that new species are still being discovered today in various parts of the world. One estimate has been made that in excess of new species have been discovered since the beginning of the 20th Century — including more than mammals!

From the above information it should be seen that populations of animals or plants could be living for prolonged periods, and then later show little or no evidence of their existence. A classic example of this is the coelacanth. This is a rare fish which can reach lengths over six feet, and weigh nearly pounds. It was once considered to have become extinct over 65 million years ago.

Then in it was found to still be living in the ocean off the coast of eastern Africa! Additional examples of animals thought to be extinct for thousands to millions of years, but then were found to be still living, could also be cited. Therefore, it is certainly possible for an organism to live on a few thousands of years after their last recorded appearance. This undoubtedly has happened in the case of Pleistocene vertebrates, as more recent last occurrence dates have been coming out in the scientific literature.

As indicated above, extinctions of species are rarely instantaneous; it only appears so in the geologic sense. Usually it takes thousands to more than a million years for this to happen. This can be explained by unfavorable environmental conditions developing for certain species. Applying this situation to Pleistocene mammals, as the climate and environment changed it would cause them to move into more restricted areas where they could still survive.

As favorable areas further diminished in extent, the populations of a given species would also decrease as food supplies lessened. Finally a point would be reached where the breeding population would become too small to sustain itself for long. Extinction of the species would then occur. It should be readily seen that as dwindling of numbers within a species was taking place over a prolonged period, that the numbers of potential fossils would also be reduced.

One reason why more recent dates of extinct animals are now being discovered is that more and more scientists are searching for them. Mammals other than the mammoth and horse in North America now have more recent last occurrence dates. For example the mastodon was considered to be extinct at the end of the Pleistocene, 10, years ago. But this presumed last occurrence date had to be revised with more recent finds.

One was that of two individuals discovered in Utah that were dated at 7, years before the present Miller, A date of less than 6, years before the present was given by Mead and Meltzer The mastodon should have survived even later than this. Evidences of distant past prehistoric life are generally known as fossils.

A common definition of a fossil is: The trace or remains of a prehistoric organism. Most ancient animals and plants are only known through their fossils. Although the abundance of fossils numbers in many trillions, the percentage of organisms that lived on earth since they first appeared that have become fossilized is minute — probably much less than a tenth of one percent. Therefore, most ancient animal remains have not survived into modern times and are not available for study.

In some instances extinct animals, or those that are no longer extant in a region, have been found associated with man. This holds true of some of the animals mentioned in the Book of Mormon such as the elephant, horse, ass and probably the curelom and cumom, and possibly even others. It has been stated that the bones [and teeth] that survived to become [part of] the archaeological record are only a tiny proportion of the original sample.

One of the most precise methods of obtaining dates for the past 70, or so years is by Carbon dating. However, many if not most of the bones and teeth tested lack sufficient collagen an animal protein useful in C dating for this.

So it is indeed fortunate when a date for a given sample yields usable results. The Book of Mormon includes animals that became extinct in North America. Those specifically named include the elephant mammoth , horse and ass. While the horse and ass belong to the same biologic genus, Equus , they are separate species. Both are known to be native to North America during the Pleistocene Epoch and earlier.

It is likely that the curelom and cumom represent extinct species as well, as mentioned above. Have these animals been found based on their remains in ancient deposits? Probably they have, but under different names; ones known to scientists. There are records of extinct animals in North America being associated with man. So, why are there no dates that do correspond to the time Jaredites and Nephites inhabited North America? As discussed above it was shown that species on their way to extinction would continue to live on, but in greatly reduced numbers, beyond their last recorded date of existence.

The problem is finding specimens immediately prior to their extinction. It is a serious problem, as with fewer and fewer animals finding their remains is ever more difficult. Concomitantly, the area s where they still survive would almost always be more restricted. And if these areas are in highlands the problem is exacerbated.

Highland areas are ones undergoing erosion with a lesser chance of preserving animals living in them. It should be kept in mind that Mesoamerica consists of many highland mountainous areas. Additionally, this area is mostly humid, especially in its southern extent with sub-tropical to even tropical conditions.

In areas such as this animal and plant remains quickly decompose and are destroyed without leaving a trace. Even if an organism is buried before it decomposes, the commonly acidic soils continue the process. With the generally abundant vegetation in a region, there would be very limited areas of exposed ground where bones or teeth might be observed. This combination of factors shows that a significant record of past life in Mesoamerica would be very difficult to uncover.

As archaeologists as well as paleontologists have discovered, most animal remains are not preserved and are lost for all time. The best opportunity appears to be finds in caves. Some caves in the Yucatan have yielded human artifacts associated with an extinct horse. Barley is a grain mentioned in the Book of Mormon e.

It, like barley, was said to be absent in America before Domesticated plants generally cannot survive without human intervention. Yet with sufficient searching it later became known that they in fact did live there. Also, while the Book of Mormon makes reference to wheat e. Animals are mentioned in the Book of Mormon in different contexts. On the one hand they have been directly cited as animals with which there was an interaction with Jaredites, Nephites or Lamanites, or else it was implied.

On the other hand indirect references to given animals were also made. Examples of this include Mosiah The mountain lion is and would have been common in Mesoamerica, as well as most all North and South America. The jaguar, relatively abundant in Mesoamerica, could be interpreted as a lion. Other examples might also be given. The point to be made is that the animals mentioned in this manner must have been familiar to those who were hearing the preaching.

In other words these were animals which most likely lived in the area and with which the peoples had an interaction. This same inference can be made with animals given by name in the Bible. We again emphasize that the Book of Mormon is primarily meant to provide another testament of Christ and to proclaim His doctrines. Additionally, though, there is a significant amount of information provided about what the peoples in this Book did and the environment in which they lived.

This includes some of the animals with which they interacted, giving us a deeper look into their lives. When properly understood, knowing the animals useful in their cultures provides valuable evidences for the veracity of the Book of Mormon.

Regardless of the location of Book of Mormon lands, there had to be far more kinds of animals there than those listed. It seems that the record keepers, especially Moroni, chose to provide only the names of animals that they thought important or useful. Based on those listed In Ether 9: These latter two animals along with the elephant were deemed especially useful.

The elephant is currently used in Southeast Asia for logging and as a beast of burden. In Thailand the elephant has been used since ancient times to plow paddy fields. For example in Mosiah 8: Since the Book of Mormon was first published in , to the present day, many critics have claimed it to be untrue based on some of the animals listed therein.

Most specifically references were and are made regarding the horse, ass and elephant. And even if the elephant mentioned is regarded as a mammoth, they say that that animal along with the horse and ass became extinct in America 10, years ago. These animals along with others were said to have first come over from Europe on the second voyage of Columbus in Some dates given below show that the chronologic ranges of some extinct animals lived into Book of Mormon time.

The mammals spoken of in the Book of Ether are: Cattle, oxen, cows, sheep, swine, goats, horses, asses, elephants, cureloms and cumoms 9: Those listed in 1 Nephi, which were already present in the Promised Land when the Lehites first arrived, are: Cow, ox, ass, horse, goat and wild goat. Both lists of animals are obviously incomplete. No mention is made of the untold kinds of animals that were not useful.

Certainly problems exist in correctly identifying the animals listed in both the Jaredite and Nephite records. This relates to translated names. In our opinion, though, the animals in both records are at least close approximations. Sorenson felt that some of the animals given in the Book of Mormon might not be what we think.

Some of the items that will be addressed in this article are: Which native American animals have historically been considered extinct before reintroduction by the Spaniards beginning in , and those thought not to have been present in the New World before man brought them in from the Old World.

It is unfortunate that the record of Ether does not give us more information on specific kinds of animals that they brought over on the barges with them. We only learn of some types of animals after the Jaredites had lived in America for a long period of time. And some of these might well be animals that were native to their Promised Land. We do know that the number of the vessels used to transport the people along with their belongings, food and animals was eight Ether 3: Their size is unknown other than they were said to be the length of a tree Ether 2: Of necessity the trees selected for their sea-going vessels or barges had to be reasonably large.

In checking on types of trees that probably would have been available to them, some could have been at least feet in length and of six feet or more in diameter. These trees most likely would have been cut into planks or sections to be constructed as barges.

A possibility does exist, though, that large trees could have been hollowed out to form the barges. But they would have had to be of sufficient diameter for the people to stand inside them. Contemplating which animals the Jaredites brought with them from the Old World, and which ones they found living in America, presents some complex problems.

Sheep, goats, swine, and even cattle, horses and asses could all have conceivably been brought with them in the barges. Conversely, all these types of animals could have been found by the Jaredites upon their arrival in America. Flocks could also refer to types of birds like geese. However, the latter seems less likely.

Swine was probably one of these animals as they are named Ether, 9: If cattle, horses and asses are included in the term, what numbers could be carried? There would have had to be enough to insure that breeding populations could be established and maintained once in the Promised Land. This certainly would mean more than one male and female of each species. A few of each sex would have been wise.

Concerning the larger animal species, probably younger individuals were chosen in order to conserve limited space. In having younger individuals, it would require less food for them. With the above factors in mind, cattle, sheep, goats, swine, asses and horses could all have conceivably been brought over on the barges.

While very unlikely, it might have been possible to even bring over very young elephants. Their size and food requirements are what make this so unlikely. The cow, ox, ass, horse, goat and wild goat were all animals that the Lehites found in America when they arrived 1 Nephi Whether any of these animals were descendants of those known to the Jaredites is unknown. Both paleontologists and archaeologists have, and are, finding more associations of animals in early human cultures. Mostly these are extant animal species.

However, there are instances of extinct animals being associated with pre-Columbian man in America. These finds are increasing as more field studies take place. Cattle, oxen and cows are some of the animals listed in the Book of Mormon.

They could be ones we envision with these names today. However, these names could possibly apply to other closely related forms. It seems likely, though, that there is more than one kind of animal indicated. Why list three separate names for just one kind of animal? In any event good explanations exist for separate types of bovids being present.

Different kinds of these animals could have been brought over by the Jaredites. However, in the Book of Ether 9: The American Bison apparently survived throughout various regions of Mexico and as far south as Nicaragua until fairly recent times. Wild cattle include living and extinct species of bison as well as other extinct closely related types. Shown here are two extinct species, Bison latifrons left and Bison antiquus right. Illustration courtesy of the George C. Page Museum in Los Angeles, California.

Different species of bovids are and have been native to the New World. The bison misnamed, buffalo is one, for which there are different species see Figure 1.

Although now extinct, the shrub-ox and southern woodland muskox could have survived well past the end of the Pleistocene. When first described by paleontologists, these animals were placed in the same genus as modern cattle Bos. This is similar to the mammoth Mammuthus being placed in the same genus as the elephant Elephas by early paleontologists.

Current practices show that the American bison can be semi-domesticated. Certainly it is conceivable that both the woodland muskox and shrub-ox were capable of this as well. This is substantiated by some living northern muskoxen being semi-domesticated.

Bos taurus is a basic type which represents cattle in general, and apparently the species from which most of our modern cattle descended. Its remains have been identified from a number of archaeological sites including some from the Yucatan Peninsula. This figure comes from Amazonwiki. Bones of domesticated cattle Bos taurus — see Figure 2 have been reported from different caves in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

It is especially interesting that along with these cow and horse remains, human artifacts were found in association with them! The indication is that domesticated cattle and the horse coexisted with humans in pre-Columbian time. The only references to swine in connection with the Nephites are negative and proverbial which indicates that they were known to them, but were considered unclean or unfit for eating, at least in times of righteousness when the Nephites were keeping the law of Moses 3 Nephi 7: They may also have been familiar to them through their contacts with the Lamanites and other indigenous peoples who raised and kept them.

No evidence for Old World pigs true swine has been found showing that they were present in the Americas before the time of Columbus. If we assume swine were brought over by the Jaredites, we still do not know how long they might have survived before becoming extirpated. Being in limited numbers in a restricted region, any evidence of their former existence might not have been detected to date.

The widespread and intensive battles between different Jaredite factions could have been instrumental in their demise in Mesoamerica. Platygonus shown here is an example of an extinct peccary that might have been present when man was in Mesoamerica. It was somewhat larger than the peccaries that live in the region today. It can be seen that both types are very pig-like and they both could easily be called a pig.

While not a true pig, the peccary, known throughout much of Mesoamerica and South America, is most definitely a pig-like beast and is closely related to it. Presently two distinct species of peccary live in Mesoamerica.

These include the Collared Peccary Pecari tajacu and the White-lipped Peccary Tayassu pecari , both of which can be found in the tropical regions near the Tuxtlas Mountains of the Yucatan.

They were hunted and eaten as early as Olmec times. Remains of these animals have been found associated with man for several thousands of years. There is a paleo-Indian carving of an extinct camel sacrum in the shape of a peccary.

A Picture of this bone is shown by Evans. Sheep and goats are very closely related animals, and can be confused with each other. It might not be wise to take all those named at face value. Yet, most could well be the animals we think they are. Sheep mentioned in the Bible were probably like sheep in the Book of Mormon. Of course it needs to be kept in mind that world-wide many different species exist.

The Jaredite record Ether 9: The Nephite record does not. However, it seems most likely that they raised these animals. Sheep were probably among the animals brought to America by the Jaredites, although they were not stated explicitly by name Ether 6: They are useful for both food and clothing. In addition to Old World sheep, apparently brought to the New World by the Jaredites, there are sheep native to America. The most common type is the Mountain Sheep, Ovis canadensis.

Their current geographic range extends south only to northern Mexico. However, their past range was more extensive, as was their habitat before human settlements expanded.

Goats are mentioned among the animals once had by the Jaredites Ether 9: There is no indication in the text that the Lehites brought goats with them to the land of promise; however, it is possible that they may have been included among those flocks and herds brought by the Jaredites in their journey over the sea Ether 6: They would have been a useful animal to both the Jaredites and Nephites, just as they have been for man through the ages in the Old World.

Evidence of goats associated with pre-Columbian man also comes from caves in Yucatan. In post-biblical Jewish literature some Jewish writers distinguished between wild and domestic cattle such as goats. Both were considered clean and could be eaten, but only the domestic variety was thought acceptable for sacrifice. This literature, however, dates to centuries after the texts of the Hebrew Bible were first written and to a time after the destruction of the temple when the practice of animal sacrifice had been discontinued.

We do not know if this later distinction was applied in earlier times. Both of them were probably of comparable size to Old World goats. Its geographic range, though, currently only extends south from southwest Alaska down to the northwest United States. Even with a possible extended range for this animal during Book of Mormon time, it is extremely unlikely it got as far south as Mesoamerica.

A closely related, but extinct, species is Oreamnos harringtoni. This goat did have a much more southerly distribution, extending into Mexico. While this goat might have survived much past the terminal Pleistocene along with other animals, there is not sufficient evidence yet for this.

The animal shown here is Mazama americana , or the Red Brocket deer, that is a common mammal found in Mesoamerica. It can readily be seen how this animal could be confused with a goat.

Antlers are shed each year, while horns are not. This illustration is from Amazonwiki. It has already been indicated that a referenced animal in the Book of Mormon could actually be something somewhat different, but had a similar appearance. There is an animal now living in Mesoamerica that fits this description, the Red Brocket deer, Mazama americana. Unlike other deer it has but a single goat-like horn — which is really an antler that is shed and regrown annually like other cervids.

When the early Spanish explorers first visited what is now the southeastern United States, they encountered Native Americans who raised semi-domesticated deer.

In all these regions they visited, the Spaniards noticed herds of deer similar to our herds of cattle. These deer bring forth and nourish their young in the houses of the natives. During the daytime they wander freely through the woods in search of their food, and in the evening they come back to their little ones, who have been cared for, allowing themselves to be shut up in the courtyards and even to be milked, when they have suckled their fawns. The only milk the natives know is that of the does, from which they make cheese.

Additional evidence suggests that deer may have been tamed or semi-domesticated in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica as well. Ethnohistorical sources also mention the Mesoamerican custom of caring for deer. In light of the evidence for deer shepherding in pre-Columbian times, it is interesting that early Spanish colonists in Mesoamerica associated native Mesoamerican brocket deer with the goat. They have only two horns like goats and are not as large as deer. In post-Columbian times the Maya, recognizing a similarity between the European goat and the New World brocket deer, gave the European animal the name temazate from the Nahuatl word for brocket deer tamazatl.

Since some Mesoamerican deer could fulfill many of the same purposes as goats, it is quite possible that Mesoamerican deer acquired a similar designation among peoples in the Book of Mormon. Another possibility for the wild goat is the American Pronghorn, known exclusively from North America.

It has a single horn single in females but bifurcated in males. While extinct, it is known from latest Pleistocene sediments and could certainly have co-existed with man. This antilocaprid is smaller than the extant form, but is more goat-like in appearance. If known to the Jaredites in the land northward, the pronghorn might well have been considered to be a goat.

Since this animal was not known in the Old World, it is likely when encountered it would be called after a similar-looking Old World animal. This figure of a late Pleistocene landscape in North America shows two Columbian mammoth on the right with extinct bison on the left in the background. Good evidence shows that these extinct forms were contemporaneous with man on this continent. Only in the record of the Jaredites in the Book of Mormon is there a mention of elephants. As explained earlier, this undoubtedly referred to the mammoth which is a true elephant.

Distant relatives, the mastodonts which represent other types of proboscideans, have lived in North America but were probably not the animal to which reference was being made.

Joseph Smith most likely knew what an elephant was at the time he did the translating from the gold plates. However, not much was given about this animal in his translation of the Book of Ether. It was said to be an especially useful animal to man Ether 9: Uses of the elephant for man have already been stated.

Presumptively this elephant as previously stated was the Columbian Mammoth, Mammuthus columbi. This animal ranged over most of North America, including Mesoamerica.

Its fossils are numerous throughout northern Mesoamerica. But this species was limited to the northern areas of North America and Eurasia. Evidence for the survival of the elephant can be found in Native American myths and traditions. Some of these traditions may be rooted in Native American discoveries of the bones of extinct fauna, while other myths could be founded on actual encounters with living species which had notable elephant-like characteristics.

The Penobscot culture hero Snow Owl is said to have gone on a long journey to a far valley in search of his missing wife. When he reached the valley he saw what appeared to be hills without vegetation moving slowly about. Upon closer inspection he found that these were the backs of huge animals with long teeth which drank water for half a day at a time and when they laid down could not get back up.

Snow owl was able to trap the large beasts by making them fall on sharpened stakes where he then was able to shoot and kill them. Pre-Columbian traditions from Mexico tell of monstrous ogre-like giants who once inhabited the region and were subsequently killed following the arrival of Aztec ancestors. These tales attribute some human characteristics to these legendary giants, while other ones seem less so. The giants were said to have long tapering arms and could tear up trees as if they were lettuce.

This was long enough to bring them to the time of the Jaredites. A date for a mammoth in northern North America was cited at 3, years before the present. The fact that known dates of mammoths in Mesoamerica are numerous up to the end of this epoch helps support this view.

It should be pointed out that the mammoth never did range as far south as South America. Man and mammoth have been found in association with each other at a number of Mesoamerican localities. Several petroglyphs dating to ancient times in Mesoamerica depict elephant-like animals. Martin reported that spear points have been associated with fossil mammoths at a number of sites, some still embedded in bones.

The usefulness of the elephant has previously been given. Of all the animals named in the Book of Mormon, cureloms and cumoms have to be the most peculiar — and mysterious. While all the other animals seem familiar to us, these two definitely are not. Apparently cureloms and cumoms were not animals known to Joseph Smith as well. It seems that they were outside his realm of experience. Quite possibly these are extinct forms.

Well, they had to have been animals that lived in Book of Mormon lands, ostensibly in Mesoamerica, and during the time that the Jaredites lived there. LDS archaeologist, John Sorenson was of the opinion that cureloms and cumoms were probably large animals.

This seems reasonable as in Ether 9: Among other things, they likely were beasts of burdens. Using limited criteria we will try to narrow the search for identifications to the most probable animals. One relatively large animal currently living in Mesoamerica and also now living in South America and Southeast Asia , but doubtfully known to Joseph Smith, is the tapir.

In the past this animal had a much greater northward geographic range in North America. It lived all through Mexico and north well into the United States. At least one species of Pleistocene tapir somewhat exceeded the living form in size. A large extant individual can grow to pounds or more, and reach a height of three and one-half feet.

The problem with this animal qualifying as a curelom or cumom is its usefulness. They are not noted as an especially good food item and more importantly are not easily tamed for use. Another animal to consider is the American Pronghorn often mistakenly called an antelope.

Its current geographic range is from Canada to central Mexico. They are occasionally tamed, and sometimes even semi-domesticated. There is apparently no record of this. These are only deer-sized animals, which includes extinct species. While known from northern Mexico, it appears that they did not inhabit Mesoamerica proper.

They are a plains type of animal. The edentates, or xenarthrans as they are known scientifically, are a relatively diverse group of New World mammals.

With the exception of the armadillo which ranges into the southwestern United States, these animals presently live in Mesoamerica south to South America. Anteaters and tree sloths belong to this group. All these are animals with which Joseph Smith would probably have had no acquaintance.

While living forms are all relatively small, many extinct species were large. The extinct ground sloths for example were very large, the largest being 18 feet in length and approaching the size of a small adult elephant. Some of these ground sloths lived in Mesoamerica to the end of the Pleistocene, and probably longer.

There are several localities where ground sloth hair and dung are abundant in caves, some with associated human artifacts. Additionally, even skin and nail materials are known. Based on brain size determined from endocranial dimensions of the skull , ground sloths would not likely have been sufficiently intelligent to train for work. The locomotion of these large beasts must have been very slow and awkward.

So, what other Mesoamerican animals are left from which to choose for a curelom or cumom? One good candidate in our opinion is a member of the camel family.

The present New World members of this family are the llamas. It seems quite likely that they would have been. Although llamas are no longer native to North America, extinct species were. And like other large mammals thought to be extinct by the close of the Pleistocene Epoch, some probably lived on much longer.

To illustrate this, an undated skull of a llama from a lava tube cave-like cavity in Utah was recovered with dried muscle tissue intact and an oily residue in the bone. Several archaeological sites, including some in Mesoamerica, have yielded co-occurrences of llamas and man. One of us WEM saw the figure of a llama carved in a stela from an archaeological site in central Mexico. Again it should be emphasized that the last recorded date for an extinct animal does not mean it vanished from earth at that time.

Undoubtedly small populations survived for at least hundreds if not thousands of years later. Two extinct species of llama a type of camel are shown here. Both are known from Mesoamerica and probably existed when men came into this region.

Some of the extinct llamas were considerably larger than living forms. One type stood seven feet tall at the shoulder, and another species six feet. Not only is there good evidence for the co-existence of American llamas and man, but also that these animals could be domesticated. It was stated by anthropologist Ricardo Latcham that New World camelids the llamas were domesticated in pre-Columbian times.

As far as being an especially useful animal, consider the uses for which the llama has been put by man. As stated by Walker et al. It has also been shown that they are good at guarding flocks. All these items make the llama an extremely useful animal for man. With the larger size of the extinct llamas this would have been especially so. Their fossils are known from Mesoamerica. It seems to us that this animal could well be either the curelom or cumom mentioned in the Book of Ether.

The American Mastodon Mammut americanum is the elephant-like animal shown here. Knight, a famous illustrator of past life.

Courtesy of Wikipedia Commons. If the llama in fact represents a curelom or cumom, what could the other one be? Again, it has to be one which lived in the right place at the right time; that is, when and where the Jaredites were living. And it also must be an animal especially useful to man. Although now extinct, two viable candidates are ones related to the elephant. They belong to the same group Order Proboscidea. The two species involved superficially look quite similar, but have long separate histories.

One is a gomphothere with the genus name of Cuvieronius , and the other a mastodon named Mammut. The latter is the American Mastodon. Like the elephant, both Cuvieronius and Mammut are very large animals having tusks and a proboscis, or trunk. Both of these were intelligent animals based on the size and configuration of their braincases as determined from fossils. Consequently, it can be seen that they were capable of being tamed and trained, but probably not domesticated.

One, or both, of these could qualify as a curelom or cumom. This is a distinct possibility. But if the llama is one of these animals, then a pick needs to be made between the gomphothere and the mastodon as a curelom or cumom. This pick is not an easy one to make.

However, there is a possibility that with such similarity in appearance, that these animals might have been called by the same name curelom or cumom. This figure is by courtesy of Wikipedia Commons. Cuvieronius and Mammut coexisted into the late Pleistocene in Mesoamerica, with the former being more common in the southern part of this land and the latter in the more northern part.

In fact Cuvieronius is fairly well known in South America where there is no record of Mammut. According to Scott Drennan personal communication there are several associations of Cuvieronius and man in that continent. Not as much detail is known about the detailed age and distribution of Cuvieronius in North America, however. As far as usefulness of either the American Mastodon or Cuvieronius, both would have made a good beast of burden and one that could move large objects. They could probably rival the elephant mammoth in this.

While the mastodon was shorter, it was also stockier. Other potential uses for either proboscidean would be similar to the elephant as well: That the elephant and mastodon were used for food has been shown by various prehistoric kill sites.

One such site demonstrated a projectile point embedded in a mastodon rib. That man in pre-Columbian time was associated with extinct llamas, elephants, mastodons and gomphotheres is a matter of record.

Why Does Ancient Art Contain Depictions Of Flying Aircraft, Helicopters And Dinosaurs? – The Truth (What information can radiocarbon dating tell paleontologists)

Greetings ASWT blog followers! Horses were extremely abundant in all North America prior to the paleontologist of the Pleistocene, what 10, years ago. So I asked him 3 times over 3 datings what is the right conclusion to draw from the test results they provided us; then I can his entire scientific staff. Plenty of them so your the one that needs to do his research and stop believing what u find on the internet……. The tell quickly picks up another dinosaur figure and thumbs through the radiocarbon book. Carbon 14 dating 1

Radium decays in years. The X-axis on the graph is the ratio of P to Di. Hi Kim, it is nice to see people like yourself actually thinking and sharing their thoughts with the whole world. Aside from the zero-date problems noted above, one might consider the possibility that the fossil might not be as old as the sediment that buried it in the first place.

Posts about Eagle Cave written by Ancient Southwest Texas. Fire not only provided necessary warmth for physiologically tropical beings in a glacial climate, but it was also essential to thaw food that had become frozen between the time that the game was killed and the time that it could be consumed.

Both are known to be native to North America during the Pleistocene Epoch and earlier. Cow, ox, ass, horse, goat and wild goat.

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Since there are no extant proxies for saber-toothed cats I also study Panthera atrox and the extant Felidae for perspective.

Being ancient, the C content has long since decayed away and that makes it useful in "zeroing" laboratory instruments. Beyond that, there are some very specific requirements that the text makes. In truth, there is presently no persuasive hypothesis to account for the emergence of protocells from the primal chaos.

Creationists are attacking a straw man.

Coments: 5
  1. arara

    Current practices show that the American bison can be semi-domesticated. Why then is there no drawing or tails of Dragons that look like Triceratops despite the fact that they were so common skeletons found? This of course excludes modern species of the bison, elk, moose and bears. While extinct, it is known from latest Pleistocene sediments and could certainly have co-existed with man. Until this season I have also been the field director, meaning I was responsible for making most of the day-to-day strategic field decisions, as well as setting the overall research agenda, organizing the endeavor, and arranging funding and logistics.

  2. ahead

    Mesoamericans kept deer, but having deer close by does not mean that they were domesticated.

  3. melanie

    Evidence for the survival of the elephant can be found in Native American myths and traditions. The collections are available for any appropriately qualified person interested in doing formal research. Hovind is not aware of the fact that by the broad outlines of the geologic column from Paleozoic times onward had been worked out by people who were mostly creationist geologists. From the quantities of flakes found in association with processed animal skeletons, it appears that the flakes were used as butchering implements. Really…Talking monkey paradigm genesis of Adam!

  4. komatio

    Their size and food requirements are what make this so unlikely. If these people traveled through Asia as thought by Hugh Nibley 41 Jared and his group possibly observed men working elephants. However, to get just one part in 10 million of argon in a rock in a thousand years, we would only need to get one part in 10 billion entering the rock each year.

  5. stiffross

    Polonium has the short life of 3 minutes before it is decayed into the next product on our list, lead But in general, this rate is felt by the vast majority of mainstream scientists to be a fundamental constant.

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