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It was also the point on the journey where locomotives were changed and serviced: Opens 19 Jun CORRELLI BARNETT: Isambard Kingdom Brunel the whole Great Western Railway in just five years, so why on earth is the planned high speed North-South rail link going to. LondonJazz is a not-for profit venture, but may occasionally take on work as a paid publicist and/or sell advertising packages. Where a piece published after 26th. The medieval cathedrals of England, which date from between approximately and , are a group of twenty-six buildings that constitute a major aspect of the.

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Compare the leisurely programme for the construction of HS2 with the zeal shown by Sir Joseph Bazalgette, the chief engineer of the Metropolitan Board of Works in London, at the height of the Victorian era. Five actors perform each night on a rotational basis. I drove out to a hill for better reception and listened to the whole piece. This arrangement will be highly acceptable to our Tradespeople and Manufacturers, who have been greatly unconvinced, and subjected to charges much more excessive than those of other principal manufacturing towns, for the want of such accommodation. From January 27, a 24 hours a day service was commenced at the Charing Cross telegraph station. In the wake of a devastating refugee crisis and The Continental War, Galina waits in line, ready to cast her vote in the first Europe-wide referendum. Nine performers merge contemporary dance, physical theatre and everyday objects to transform the stage into shifting architectural landscapes.

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Thanks for organising xx ". Indeed, many a labourer and farmer on the railroad side left the labour of the field to look at the Royal special train as it rushed rapidly along. The drizzling rain which was falling at the time had not deterred a considerable number of persons from collecting together at Tring station.

Among the persons assembled at this station were the juvenile members of the neighbouring population, boys and girls, who were drawn up in distinct rows, and who strained their tiny voices to be utmost in welcoming their Sovereign. Her Majesty appeared highly pleased with this specimen of infantine loyalty and enthusiasm. Today, Tring Station comprises platform shelters more appropriate to a bus stop , a ticket office in the absence of a clerk, travellers have to deal with a fiendish ticket machine and an infrequent bus service to the town.

By comparison, its southerly neighbour, Berkhamsted, originally a second-class station, now offers travellers waiting room and toilet facilities, a news stand, and a cafe for those in need of more substantial repast there is a fish and chip restaurant adjacent to the main station entrance.

It was also the point on the journey where locomotives were changed and serviced: We consider even fifty miles too great a distance to run an engine without examination; and have seen on other lines the ill consequences arising from the want of this necessary precaution. We should prefer about thirty miles stages when it can be managed.

It acquired this role through its location, approximately midway between London and Birmingham, and retained it until the s when the London and North-Western Railway centralised locomotive construction and overhaul on Crewe. The interior of Wolverton Works, ca. Construction of what became Wolverton Works began in with the erection of an engine shed where maintenance could be carried out and reserve locomotives kept in steam. Designed by George Aitchison, the original workshop was a substantial quadrangular brick building, with stone dressings.

It could accommodate up to 36 locomotives, with repairs being carried out in erecting shops located either side of its entrance: It has a line of way down the middle, communicating with a turn-table in the principal entrance, and also the small erecting shop, which is on the left of this entrance.

Powerful cranes are fixed in the erecting-shops for raising and lowering the engines when required. Contiguous to the small erecting-shop, and occupying the principal portion of the left wing, is the repairing shop, which is entered by the left gateway. One line runs down the middle of this shop, with nine turn-tables, and as many lines of way at right angles to the central line.

This shop is feet 6 inches long and 90 feet wide, both in the clear, and will hold engines and tenders, or thirty-six engines. It is lighted by twenty-four windows reaching nearly to the roof. The remainder of the left wing is occupied by a room for stores on the ground-floor, with a brass foundry and store room over; and the iron-foundry, which extends to the back line of the buildings. Wolverton later added locomotive construction to its maintenance and repair activities, although this probably post-dated the London and Birmingham Railway; the first locomotive is believed to have been turned out ca.

One, the invention of Mr. McConnel, the head of the locomotive department, effects several important improvements. It is a composite carriage of corrugated iron, lined with wood to prevent unpleasant vibration, on six wheels, the centre wheels following the leading wheels round curves by a very ingenious arrangement.

The saving in weight amounts to thirty-five per cent. A number of locomotives have lately been built from the designs of the same eminent engineer, to meet the demands of the passenger traffic in excursion trains for July and August, It must be understood that although locomotives are built at Wolverton, only a small proportion of the engines used on the line are built by the company, and the chief importance of the factory at Wolverton is as a repairing shop, and school for engine drivers.

The history of each engine, from the day of launching, is so kept, that, so long as it remains in use, every separate repair, with its date and the names of the men employed on it, can be traced. Allowing, therefore, for the disadvantage as regards economy of a company, as compared with private individuals, the system at Wolverton is as effective as anything that could well be imagined.

Sidney then goes on to describe the offices and workshops, those who worked in them, and the various processes that were typical of the heavy engineering that once occupied Wolverton and other railway works. The following are some of his impressions: The tap being withdrawn the molten liquor spouts forth in an arched fiery continuous stream, casting a red glow on the half dressed muscular figures busy around.

At the long row of vices the smiths are hammering and filing away with careful dexterity. It is not mere strength, dexterity, and obedience, upon which the locomotive builder calculates for the success of his design, but also upon the separate and combined intelligence of his army of mechanics. Locomotive construction at Wolverton was short-lived.

Some locomotives are believed to have been built at the Works, the last in , after which new construction was transferred to Crewe. Locomotive repairs continued at Wolverton until , the Works then switching entirely to the construction and maintenance of carriages, eventually becoming the largest carriage works in Britain.

When the railway first came to Wolverton, there was nothing there to accommodate the large labour force that the workshops would require and provide the usual infrastructure of shops, school, utilities, etc.

This railway colony is well worth the attention of those who devote themselves to an investigation of the social condition of the labouring classes. We have here a body of mechanics of intelligence above average, regularly employed for ten and a half hours during five days, and for eight hours during the sixth day of the week, well paid, well housed, with schools for their children, a reading-room and mechanics institution at their disposal, gardens for their leisure hours, and a church and clergyman exclusively devoted to them.

At Wolverton the progress of time itself is marked by the hissing of the various arrival and departure trains. The blacksmith as he plies at his anvil, the turner as he works at his lathe, as well as their children at school, listen with pleasure to certain well-known sounds on the rails which tell them of approaching rest. The company has erected houses for the men, and allotted gardens to them, and some time since voted a grant of money for the erection of schools for the infant and adult population, but there was still no means of supplying them with religious instruction.

Accordingly, at the last meeting a proposal that such a contribution be made was brought forward by a gentleman named Jones, who, it is worthy of notice, is himself a Dissenter, and was carried with but one dissentient voice. They proposed, therefore, that the resolution of the previous meeting be rescinded, and that the amount required should be raised by voluntary subscription.

Illustrated London News , 19th June The church was to accommodate between seven and eight hundred people, the school one hundred each of boys, girls and infants, with residential accommodation for the teachers.

Turning next to Wolverton Station, the first building to be built was located to the north of the Grand Junction Canal see plan. Opened in , the volume of passengers using it soon outgrew its capacity and in a new and larger station was opened. Located slightly to the south of the first station, it offered travellers waiting rooms, toilet facilities, a restaurant and refreshment rooms.

The second Wolverton station. Among other things, travellers complained about the difficulty in getting served.

Would you mind taking then into the second-class refreshment room? In other areas Wolverton Station also appears to have fallen short of the ideal, at least in the opinion of one member of the travelling public. To those of a nervous disposition the roar of escaping steam warranted complaint, as did the limited stopping time in an age when the gentry and their ladies travelled with their carriages, sometimes in them: These engines might easily be sent or yards until the trains are ready, and not to terrify the passengers for five minutes and more, to so great an extent as I have been witness to frequently.

The second point, although a minor one, is the great want of attention on the part of some one when the train arrives, and stops for ten minutes at Wolverton, where ladies have wished to alight from their carriages which are of necessity perched upon a truck; but no one can be found with a ladder until it is generally time to start off again, when on hearing the bell ringing and the steam puffing off, the poor ladies are seen running about in all directions almost frightened out of their lives at being left behind.

And as locomotives became faster and capable of longer journeys without servicing, express trains ceased to call at Wolverton and its importance diminished. The refreshment rooms are long gone and today Wolverton is a minor station on the line. At the time of writing , much of Wolverton Works lies derelict. All were victims of the mass station closures of the s and 60s. The most northerly of the group was Brandon, the only station between Coventry and Rugby.

The most southerly closure was Castlethorpe, a late addition to the line that opened in , and closed in Then came Roade closed , Blisworth closed , Weedon closed and Crick renamed Welton in ; closed to passengers in and entirely in Roade was originally the jumping off point for Northampton, a town that the Railway bypassed: In both cases, the site would be acquired from the Grafton estate.

For a few years Roade, where the station was built in the cutting immediately south of the bridge carrying the main London road over the line, prospered as the most convenient of the three for Northampton, but after the opening of the line from Blisworth to Peterborough through Northampton in it was reduced to a third-class station. By the refreshment room had been removed and there were only seven stopping trains a day. Once again land was acquired from the Grafton estate and in Roade station was rebuilt on a larger scale with three platforms and four running faces.

Why the Railway bypassed Northampton remains a vexed question. Take, for example, Ernest Carter, writing about the Blisworth to Peterborough branch line: Incidentally, the opposition of Northampton, which the town afterwards wholeheartedly repented, was the cause of much industrial difficulty and expenditure, for it involved the construction of the mile-and-a-half-long Kilsby Tunnel on the London and Birmingham main line. In the construction of this entirely unnecessary work no less than two and a half years were expended, over thirty-six million bricks being used to line its 30 ft.

This account suggests that the townsfolk opposed the line being routed through Northampton, a decision they were later to regret, for they had to await the Northampton Loop, completed in , before they received direct connections to London and Birmingham. Furthermore, had they not opposed the Railway, the immense engineering problems at Kilsby would never have arisen.

Stephenson, was through Northampton; so great, however, was the opposition that certain parties in authority entertained to it, that the bill was consequently lost. Whether the extract quoted above stems from Roscoe having picked up a local rumour may never be known, but the evidence suggests that there is no more than a germ of truth in it. Although there was opposition from local landed gentry, the townsfolk and traders of Northampton were generally in favour of the line.

But despite this, there is little evidence to suggest that the Company ever intended routing the line through Northampton, preferring instead to maintain the ruling gradient 1: With Blisworth Station only 4 miles from the town, the railway was, for the time, near at hand, for when the station was reached the rail journey it offered was far quicker than anything previously possible.

Thus, the topography of the situation was probably the main reason why Northampton was bypassed, with several lesser factors reducing the business case still further. This is the first time that the entire line so far has been traversed.

The Coventry Herald , 23rd March And so the Railway reached Rugby, which shares with Wolverton the fate of having once been an important railway town that, as such, has suffered an eclipse. Although Rugby remains a busy and important railway junction , its station is much less busy than in bygone years, particularly with regard to inter-city services. Derby Mercury , 6th May Until the London and Birmingham Railway arrived in and the Midland Counties Railway two years later, Rugby had been a small rural town with a population of around 2, Railways were to prove a major factor in its development.

In the following decades heavy engineering industries were set up, and Rugby became a major industrial centre. By the s its population had reached 40,; today it exceeds 60, The landscape on all sides is remarkable for the diversified site of the ground, the rich succession of red fallows and green meadows, with the uplands clothed with majestic woods of the most luxuriant foliage.

Roscoe and Lecount probably the latter then go on to described the ornate bridge over the Lutterworth road, just to the south of the original Station: It consists of a flat gothic arch of cast iron, with ornamented spandrils abutting upon octangular towers of brick, with stone dressings, beyond which on either side are three smaller arches of brick, with buttresses between them, and the whole is surmounted with a parapet wall standing upon a bold stone moulding, which is carried through the whole length of the bridge.

Opened in April , the first Rugby Station was intended to be temporary, probably because the exact location of the junction with the planned Midland Counties Railway had yet to be decided. The catalogue entry reads: This building is erected in the Swiss style, with a large projecting roof, and is arranged so as to afford accommodation to passengers both arriving and departing.

The booking offices are on the ground floor, and a staircase leads to the waiting rooms above on the level of the Railway, to gain which a large covered enclosure is passed under, while parties wishing to leave the Railway descend from the line by a separate staircase, so that all confusion is avoided. As at Wolverton, the Company had to build accommodation for their workforce: The station-house is set back from the railway about 30 feet, with a fore-court intervening about 34 feet in width.

The building is 26 feet in front, and 31 feet 6 inches in depth. On the upper floor, which is on a level with the fore-court, is a waiting-room, the descent from which to the booking-office below by a flight of twenty steps. The passengers leaving by a train pass through the booking-office up the stairs into the waiting-room, and from thence across the fore-court to the platform; while those arriving leave the station by a flight nineteen wooden steps, 6 feet in width, and on the right side of the fore-court.

The station platform is of wood, 8 feet 10 inches wide; and between the ways is a second platform of wood, 2 feet 9 inches wide, and 7 inches high above the rails. The whole width of way from the platform to the top of the slope on the opposite side is 26 feet 5 inches. The pumping-engine has a 6-inch cylinder and 2-feet stroke; the usual working pressure is about 34 lbs. The water is derived from the river Avon, and let into a large tank built for the purpose.

At a distance from the station of about a quarter of a mile is a locomotive engine house, which will hold three engines and tenders shed at this station. There is also a carriage-shed at this station. The persons employed at this station are, one ticket-collector, one inspector, four police, five porters, one stationary engine-man, three engine -drivers, two firemen, two smiths, one stoker, three fitters, two cleaners, two coke-men, and two carpenters.

The new Station, which was jointly managed, gained a reputation for its haphazard development: Such of the stations and other works as were not in a perfect finished state at the time of the last annual meeting, have since been completed, and the directors believe, that, in all the arrangements, and in the working of the line, the expectations and requirements of the public have been most satisfactorily answered.

The only exception of which the directors are aware, is the Rugby station, where, notwithstanding the large sums that have been expended in providing amply for the convenience of the public, and in adopting the precise mode of communication pointed out by the London and Birmingham Company, at this important place of junction, complaints are still made of the insufficiency of the arrangements.

This has been a source of great disappointment to the directors, after the unlooked for expense which has already been incurred, but alterations are in progress by which they hope to remedy every reasonable ground of dissatisfaction.

The third Rugby Station ca. The opening of the Grand Junction Railway in created a rail link between Birmingham and the North West, which was soon extended to Rugby, while the opening of the Midland Counties Railway to Rugby in created a rail route to the North East.

The outcome was that Rugby became an extremely busy transport node through which passed most of the rail traffic between London and the Midlands, the north of England, Scotland and North Wales.

The Station and its Junction were to retain this position for the next 25 years, during which time the town also grew in size and importance: When the London and Birmingham Railway was opened, the little village of Rugby was known only as the locale of a celebrated Grammar School. Now it bids fair to become a large, bustling market town, and the great centre of the principal Railway traffic in the heart of England.

The station on the line when first opened, and for a good many years after, was not 40 yards in length. Now it is about ; and looking from one end to the other it appears as if it had been laid down for some splendid promenade. Since the traffic on the Midland Railway was diverted towards it, and the Midland Company got a joint interest in the station, notwithstanding its vast accommodation, it is now found to be greatly too small.

To remedy this and to provide for the traffic on the Trent Valley line, now in progress at the Rugby terminus, as well as for the traffic to the Rugby, Warwick, and Leamington Railway, which is also to use this station as a central depot for goods, and for the conveyance of passengers from the East to the West of England and to Wales, plans have been drawn of such additions and alterations as will serve to make the station at once the most extensive and magnificent in the kingdom.

At present, the London and Birmingham have got a spacious fitting and engine establishment on the Rugby side, attached to which, for the accommodation of the fitters and their families, two rows of handsome and commodious cottages have been erected, and with their neat and tidy plots of garden ground, constitute quite a picture along the line. Charles Newmarch, returning to Rugby after some years absence, remarked on the change to the station architecture that had occurred, describing the original station as being of timber construction: We remembered nothing of the long range of building, with its engine houses and immense establishment; when we left Rugby, a little wooden station of very moderate dimensions was found sufficient for all the traffic that then existed, whereas now we have a platform of some hundred feet in length, and even more accommodation is still required.

This was a proposal for a new line to connect the Midland system with the metropolis. Many complaints had been made that the only access for Midland passengers to London was by the circuitous and uncertain route of Rugby — uncertain because the arrangements for the meeting of trains so frequently broke down.

The position was alleviated to some extent when, in , the Midland Railway negotiated an agreement with the Great Northern to run trains into Kings Cross via Hitchin, and in when the London and North Western opened a third track between Willesden and Bletchley. It was under these circumstances that the Midland directors promoted a line to London. Despite losing most of its traffic from the former Midland Counties Railway, Rugby continued to remain inadequate for the freight traffic it carried.

The traffic had become so heavy that in the present incommodious station it is worked with much difficulty and many delays. More than passenger trains, only one of which does not stop, pass through the station daily, and as there is no separate line for goods and mineral trains, the stress of a proportionate number of these is added.

Then there is the fact that coal trains for the South are made up at Rugby of trucks coming from the Lancashire, South Yorkshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, Cannock Chase, and other coalfields. About two years ago an adequate goods station and large cattle sidings were built; but the usefulness of these must to a very appreciable extent be counteracted, so long as the present arrangement of metals is used.

What shortcomings of the station are that present themselves to the notice of passengers is tolerably well known. Rugby, in the days when railway stations were exciting places. Beeching and his axe. Its locomotive sheds were closed in and in , as did the Locomotive Testing Station and the Great Central goods yard. Of the railways that once converged on Rugby from nine directions, the line to Leamington closed in , followed in by the line to Peterborough and the Great Central Railway south of Rugby.

The section of the Great Central Railway to Nottingham survived until The spires of St. There is a splendid station here, whole staircases of stone, and every accommodation for the landing and departure of travellers.

Taking this line of road as a whole, it is one of the most stupendous undertakings of modern times, and will ultimately lead to results of which it is difficult to foretell the extent. Initially, Coventry was regarded as the most important intermediate station on the line.

Situated a short distance to the south of the City, the earliest record of a train reaching Coventry Station appears in the Coventry Standard: Some of the Directors and their friends occupied the carriages. Each was built above a cutting and adjacent to a road bridge, their passengers descending flights of stairs to the track, for platforms were not at first provided.

Eliezer Edwards recalls arriving at Coventry Station late one night in A solitary porter with a lantern was in attendance. There was no lamp about the place. The guard clambered to the roof of the carriage in which I had travelled, and the porter brought a long board, having raised edges, down which my luggage came sliding to the ground.

The Station then consisted of the small house by the side of the bridge which crosses the railway, and the only means of entrance or exit to the line was by this steep stair, which was about three feet wide. The original Coventry Station ca. The front elevation, as shown in ground plan, will extend about feet.

Here, as at Watford, the tickets are collected from the passengers by the down trains. Two platforms were built standing back from the main line and about yards further east, and ramps were provided up to street level. Two loop lines diverged from the main line, one to each platform, where they arrived under canopies, an arrangement that left the main line free for passing traffic.

Francis Wishaw left his usual detailed description of the new Station, referring to the platform canopies as sheds , which suggests that the platform lines at this time might have been fully enclosed: The new station is, in all respects, free from such annoyance, and appears to be altogether well arranged.

The level of the passenger-platforms is 2 feet above the rails, whereby stepping up to the carriages is altogether avoided. There are two sheds, each feet 6 inches in length and 19 feet 6 inches in clear width; that on the left from London being for the down trains, and that on the right for the up trains.

Through each shed a single way is laid from the main double way, which passes between the sheds. This arrangement admits of free passage on the main way during the stoppage of the trains at this station. In front of this building is a paved platform 10 feet wide and 2 feet above the rails. The glass-doors, nine in number, in front of the station-buildings, remind us of some of the Belgian railway stations; and the same plan has been adopted in the Edmonton station of the Northern and Eastern Railway.

In the rear of each shed is a covered way for common road-carriages, with a platform 6 feet wide next to the building. Apart from the buildings are two water-columns with engine-races 20 feet 6 inches in length, as also carriage-docks, with turning platforms conveniently arranged. The whole station is enclosed with stone walls, and is approached from Coventry by gates at about seventy yards from the station-building. The establishment, in August , at the Coventry station consisted of the superintendent and two clerks, two ticket-collectors, one inspector, one policeman, ten porters, two switchmen, one gas-man, and one pumping-engine man.

There are usually kept at this station two first-class and two second-class carriages. There is a 6-horse pumping-engine on the west side.

In the building containing this engine are also rooms for the police and porters. The well is about 30 feet deep, and 4 feet in diameter; and the water-tank is 20 feet 9 inches long, 14 feet 9 inches wide, and 4 feet deep.

On the siding at the entrance is a feet turn-table. The urinals are enclosed with close boarding, and covered over with a shallow rain-water tank 8 inches in depth, a pipe from which conducts the water to the trough for the purpose of cleansing it.

In front of this enclosure the name of the station is painted in conspicuous letters. The rates and tolls are painted on a large board at this station. Sugar, grain, corn, timber, metals except iron , nails, anvils, and chains, 2d.

Every person in or upon any carriage, 2d. It has been constructed under the superintendence of Mr. They returned by special train to town, General Pasley expressing himself highly satisfied with the works and general engineering. One of the main advantages of this extension will be the facilities it will confer on the inhabitants of the southern districts of Warwickshire for the economical supply of coals.

The line is of a singular construction, being a continued series of ascents and descents, forming an undulating surface from terminus to terminus.

Kenilworth, the only station between Coventry and Leamington, is five miles from the former, and three and three quarters from the latter, is situated on the outskirts of the town.

The Leamington station is elegantly constructed in the Roman Doric style, and is situated in the main road between Leamington and Warwick, in the parish of Milverton, near to Emscote. A continued series of cuttings and embankments occur throughout the distance. The branch diverges, by a sharp curve, out of the main line at Coventry, and preserves an undulating course to Leamington, a perpetual impetus being kept up between the ascents and descents. One of the principal works is that of the Milburn viaduct, prettily situated in the middle of a valley, and composed of seventeen arches of red brick, faced with stone.

The Avon viaduct, a beautiful structure, is composed of nine arches of sixty feet span, in the neighbourhood of the Hon. The Coventry Herald, 13th December This week we are enabled to add, that a contract has been entered into for building the new Station for the Carrying Trade, to be completed in three months. This arrangement will be highly acceptable to our Tradespeople and Manufacturers, who have been greatly unconvinced, and subjected to charges much more excessive than those of other principal manufacturing towns, for the want of such accommodation.

However, it was not for some years that a proper goods depot was established: What industry there was developed to the north of the City, away from the railway, but its connections with vehicle and cycle manufacturing did not at any rate result in a large volume of railway goods traffic.

In addition to the main line, two further lines later entered Coventry Station. The Coventry to Leamington railway, which entered from the east, was opened in , initially linking the City with Milverton, but in the line was extended into Leamington Spa. In September , a line was opened to Nuneaton, which entered the Station from its western end, and over which the Midland railway had freight running rights.

Reproduced by kind permission of the Coventry History Centre. Scope for further enlarging passenger-handling facilities at Coventry was constrained by road bridges on either side of the Station Stoney Road to the south, Warwick Road to the north and its location in a cutting; together, these restricted it to two main lines and prevented the platforms from being extended to any great extent.

Nevertheless, some changes were made. The station building shown in the earlier photograph has been extended and the awning projecting over the platform loop replaced with one of conventional design.

The louvered roof suggests toilet facilities. Derby Junction station, Hampton, looking towards Birmingham. It stood facing the station shown above i. However, because so few images of the early stations on the line, and even fewer of its buildings, survive, it is worth including. From then on the line was of minor importance, losing its passenger service in and following a bridge failure being closed in The Grand Junction Railway following later mergers.

From Hampton the line continues for another 10 miles to its first northern terminus at Curzon Street, the remains of which is the only significant building to survive from the original Railway despite its Grade I. Designed by Phillip Hardwick Snr. As with Euston, the old New Street Station was to fall victim to the railway modernisation programme of the s, when obliteration, rather than preservation and restoration, was much in vogue.

The Grand Junction Railway was the first to commence operations into Birmingham. On 6th May , its proprietors obtained an Act [ 24 ] authorising the construction of a line between Birmingham and Warrington 78 miles , later to become the U.

From the outset it was considered desirable that the London and Birmingham and the Grand Junction railways should meet near to the centre of Birmingham. But locating land on which to build a terminus that met these criteria posed significant problems. In his survey of , Francis Giles identified Broad Street as an appropriate location for the termini of both railways.

He identified two routes by which it might be reached. Another plan was to pass up the Tame Valley from Stone Bridge, and join the Grand Junction Railway at Wednesbury, having a branch line to Birmingham; this was done with a view to the advantages of the whole line from London to Liverpool. Both companies were to have stations in Broad-street the Grand Junction on the north-west side, on a piece of ground of about seven and a half acres; and the London and Birmingham on the south-east side, containing about nine acres, with another station at the Bell Barn Road.

That via a tunnel formed a direct route into the City Centre, but it would have been expensive to build and would most likely have met strong opposition from property owners.

On the other hand, his bypass solution took the line clear of the built-up areas, thereby offering cheaper land for station development, but interchange to a City Centre branch line would have been inconvenient and its construction would also have met with the problems of high land cost and opposition from property owners.

In October , the Stephensons were commissioned to review the proposals put forward by Rennie and Giles and recommend which to accept.

They chose the latter. Owned by Earl Howe Richard Curzon-Howe , it was sparsely developed with cottages, gardens and vegetable plots and was, presumably, available to buy at a reasonable price.

Thus, the first London and Birmingham Railway Act authorised a line. Several attempts to build a line from Birmingham towards Lancashire had already failed: Petition to parliament for permission to make a railroad between Birmingham and a point opposite to Liverpool in Cheshire. The usual interests of canal and landed proprietors strenuously opposed this bill, and it was lost, on standing orders, in the Commons.

A similar application was also thrown out. Application for a line from Birmingham to Chorlton, in Cheshire, lost by the dissolution of parliament, as was also one for a line from Liverpool to Chorlton. This was principally accomplished through the unwearied perseverance of Mr Swift of Liverpool, the solicitor to the bill, and the directors, by personal applications and equitable pecuniary remunerations to the parties, whose interests were affected by the projected line.

The measure thus released from its formidable oppositions, rapidly passed through both Houses of Parliament, and the Grand Junction Railway Bill received the Royal Assent on the 6th of May, Aston Viaduct, on the Grand Junction Railway deviation.

Thus, having obtained an Act covering the main section of the line from Warrington to Birmingham, the Directors returned to the fray determined. In application was accordingly made to Parliament to carry into effect such alterations and extensions; and the act for this purpose was obtained and received the Royal Assent on the 16th of June, in that year.

However, in his account above Roscoe fails to mention strong opposition to the planned extension: Watt of Aston Hall, the Proprietors of the Park, and other influential parties. The Company now found in James Watt Jnr. Although the necessary Parliamentary authority to make the end-on connection with the London and Birmingham had been obtained, it was at the expense of a caveat in the Act that prevented the Aston Hall estate being entered by the railway company without the written approval of Watt the leaseholder or its owners, and this was not forthcoming: Watt of Aston Hall, which has compelled the Directors to change the route and to enter that town by another route.

It is irregular that the son of the great inventor of the steam engine, should have been the principal opponent. Watt, and which was dependent upon the permission being granted by that gentleman, [ 29 ] has been refused by him, which rendered it necessary to make a fresh survey of ground in that neighbourhood; the result however has been highly favourable, for by a short detour of about half a mile, a junction with the London and Birmingham Railway may be effected, without the necessity of passing through a tunnel under the town, as previously arranged.

The diversion required the hasty design and construction of several extra bridges, embankments and viaducts, including, in the approach to Nova Scotia Gardens, a substantial arch viaduct built on a curve of chains appox. The Grand Junction Railway commenced public services on 4th July, , their trains terminating at a temporary terminus at Vauxhall while work on the Lawley Street viaduct and the Nova Scotia Gardens terminus was completed.

In the intervening period, passengers completed their journey by omnibus: The Temporary Station is at Vauxhall, which is about a mile and a half from the centre of the town.

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WGN-TV, virtual channel 9 (UHF digital channel 19), is an independent television station licensed to Chicago, Illinois, United States. It is the flagship television. Documentary sources on scurvy in early Europe are largely post-Mediaeval and portray it as affecting sailors, soldiers, or victims of famine.

But is this an accurate. The existing large public clock at London Bridge made by John Carter, chronometer maker to the Royal Navy, of 61 Cornhill, City and Tooley Street, Southwark, next to the terminus, was adapted with an electric check to take the precise time signal.

The business acquired by the Electric Telegraph Company consisted of twelve domestic and foreign patents, Cooke's telegraph contracting business, the existing.

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The foreign gallery in this building is worked by male telegraphists, nearly all foreigners; but the great gallery, in which the telegraphic business of the United Kingdom is performed, is worked solely by young females.

Omnibuses leave the principal Inns and Coach Offices about half an hour previously to the departure of the several trains, for the purpose of conveying passengers to the Station, and of bringing back others who may have arrived.

At its western end it contains the font for the ritual washing service of Baptism , at which a person, most often an infant, is symbolically accepted into the church.

Coments: 3
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    The foreign gallery in this building is worked by male telegraphists, nearly all foreigners; but the great gallery, in which the telegraphic business of the United Kingdom is performed, is worked solely by young females.

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    After partaking of refreshment, the party returned to this town. In plan, the roof is crossed, transversely and longitudinally, by four large beams, so arranged as to leave a square space of about 27 feet wide in the centre, the other portions of the roof are ceiled with deeply moulded and ornamented panels, divided from each other by beams, having on their soffits enrichment of the Etruscan fret pattern. From beginning to end there was a strong cross-representation of both direction and shareholding between the railways and the Electric.

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